Literature on Organizational Performance
Factors affecting organizational performance include stress, organizational design, and task environment. Each factor also varies along multiple dimensions. We now describe those dimensions of stress, organizational design, and task environment as often discussed in the literature and their connections to performance. We start by looking into the literature on organizational performance.
KeywordsTime Constraint Time Pressure Organizational Performance Organizational Design Organizational Effectiveness
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- 2.March and Olsen (1976) described three major types of ambiguities in organization: ambiguity of intention, ambiguity of understanding, and ambiguity of history. They are reflected in this research by inappropriate agent preference (as well be described later), incomplete information, and agent turnover.Google Scholar
- 3.Scott (1987) refers to it as the peripheral part of the organization.Google Scholar
- 4.cott (1987) refers to it as the core part of the organization.Google Scholar
- 5.Agent style may also be due to personality (Barron, 1982; Kets de Vries and Miller, 1986), although this point is controversial.Google Scholar
- 6.As suggested by Hall (1991), there are two types of task dimensions. One type describes the task environment in terms of contents, which considers technological and economic conditions. The other type describes the task environment from an analytical perspective, which is what we are concerned in this book. As suggested by Aldrich (1979), analytical task environmental dimensions include capacity, homogeneity-heterogeneity, stability-instability, concentration-dispersion, domain consensus-dissensus, turbulence, etc. We may only examine some of those related to the dimension discussed in this book.Google Scholar
- 7.One aspect of task environment complexity that will not be examined in this book is related to the degree of difficulty of goal understanding (Kelley and McGrath, 1985). In this book, we assume that the goal of the organization is to make best decisions based on known information and trained procedure and that it is well understood by each member of the organization.Google Scholar
- 8.A task environment with all components having similar impacts is said to be homogeneous, while a task environment with components having different impacts is said to be heterogeneous (Aldrich, 1979). In a decomposable task environment, the relationship of components (x1, x2) may look like b1x1 + b1x2, and in a non-decomposable task environment, the relationship of components (x1, x2) may look like b0 + b1x1 + b2x2 + b3x1 * x2.Google Scholar
- 9.this book, the task environment is viewed as an external factor to the organization. The organization has no effect on the task environment.Google Scholar
- 10.Kathleen Carley and her associates at Carnegie Mellon University have also conducted experiments using human subject. According to the progress of the experiments, it may take more than a hundred years and cost millions of dollars to examine all possible factors and their combinations.Google Scholar