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Signal Transduction and Structure of Nuclear Receptors

  • William Bourguet
  • Pierre Germain
  • Hinrich Gronemeyer
Part of the Endocrine Updates book series (ENDO, volume 17)

Abstract

Multicellular organisms require specific intercellular communication to properly organize the complex body plan during embryogenesis and maintain its properties and functions throughout life. While growth factors, neurotransmitters and peptide hormones bind to membrane receptors thereby inducing the activity of intracellular kinase cascades or the JAK-STAT/Smad signaling pathways, other small, hydrophobic signaling molecules such as steroid hormones, certain vitamins and metabolic intermediates enter, or are generated, within the target cells and bind to cognate members of a large family of nuclear receptors. Nuclear receptors (NRs) are of major importance for metazoan intercellular signaling, as they converge different intra- and extracellular signals to initiate and regulate gene expression programs. They act as transcription factors that i) respond directly through physical association with a large variety of hormonal and other regulatory, as well as metabolic signals, ii) integrate diverse signaling pathways as they correspond themselves to targets of post-translational modifications, and iii) regulate the activities of other signaling cascades (commonly referred to as “signal transduction crosstalk”). The genetic programs that they modulate affect virtually all aspects of the life of a multicellular organism, covering such diverse aspects as, for example, embryogenesis, homeostasis and reproduction, or cell growth and death. Their gene regulatory power and selectivity has prompted intense research on these key factors, which is now starting to decipher a complex network of molecular events accounting for their transcription regulatory capacity. The study of these molecular processes has also shed light on multiple general principles underlying transcription regulation, and it will be a future challenge to uncover the molecular rules that define selective NR-dependent spatial and temporal control of gene expression.

Keywords

Androgen Receptor Glucocorticoid Receptor Nuclear Receptor Thyroid Hormone Receptor Coactivator Complex 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • William Bourguet
    • 1
  • Pierre Germain
    • 1
  • Hinrich Gronemeyer
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC)Illkirch Cedex, C. U. de StrasbourgFrance

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