The Role of the Central Catecholamine System in the Organization of Neuronal and Neurohumoral Responses to Various Stressful Stimuli
Neuroanatomically, the routes of neurogenic stressors are constituted by neuronal pathways for stressful signals to brain centers (ascending pathways), and neuronal pathways carrying stress response signals to the periphery (descending pathways). They may consist of short loop reflexes (spinal and supraspinal) or long loop circuits (ascending neuronal pathways — higher centers [hypothalamus, limbic system. neocortex] — descending neuronal pathways with outputs to the periphery). Both are involved in stress responses with or without the participation of central catecholaminergic (CA) neurons. Different stressors may act on different central CA neurons, and vice versa, different CA neurons are diversely involved in stress responses. Their anatomical organization, however, is similar: CA neurons participate both in the ascending and descending stress pathways.
KeywordsNeuronal Pathway Stria Terminalis Parabrachial Nucleus Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Preganglionic Neuron
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