Neural Mechanisms Regulating Phenylethanolamine N-Methyltransferase Gene Expression
Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to stimulate hormonal and neural regulatory pathways leading to the release of glucocorticoids and epinephrine into the bloodstream. This response is the classic fight or flight mechanism originally described by Walter B. Cannon in the 1900s.1 It permits the organism to meet the challenge of a stressor, whether environmental, physiological or psychological. Eventually, however, homeostasis must be restored to ensure the organism’s survival. The latter occurs through the activation of inhibitory hormonal and neural feedback pathways impacting each level of the axis to suppress further glucocorticoid and epinephrine production and release.
KeywordsPC12 Cell Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase Activate Polypeptide Splanchnic Nerve PACI Receptor PNMT Gene
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