Adenylyl Cyclase: A Molecule of Diversity

  • Yoshihiro Ishikawa
Part of the Advances in Behavioral Biology book series (ABBI, volume 53)


It is now well known that adenylyl cyclase is made of multiple subtypes that are divergent in tissue distribution and biochemical characteristics. So far nine subtypes have been cloned and characterized (Hanoune, et al., 2001, Ishikawa, 1997). These subtypes share the common property, i.e., the conversion of ATP to cAMP upon stimulation by Gsα. Other properties such as regulation by Gßγ or calcineurin, however, are different among the subtypes. Further, the tissue distribution of these subtypes is also different. Types I and VIII are localized to neuronal tissues and type V is found in the corpus striatum and the heart. Type IV is found elsewhere. It is thus speculated that each tissue or cell type expresses an unique combination of multiple adenylyl cyclase subtypes. In this article, I will summarize the divergent regulation of each adenylyl cyclase subtypes from various aspects including that by newly developed pharmacological reagents.


Adenylyl Cyclase Guanylyl Cyclase Adenylyl Cyclase Type Adenylyl Cyclase Isoforms Adenylyl Cyclase Stimulation 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  • Yoshihiro Ishikawa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PhysiologyYokohama City University School of MedicineYokohamaJapan

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