Free Bosons: Bose—Einstein Condensation; Photon Gas

  • Silvio R. A. Salinas
Part of the Graduate Texts in Contemporary Physics book series (GTCP)


The thermodynamic properties of an ideal gas of bosons can be obtained from the grand partition function
$$ln\Xi (T,V,\mu ) = - \sum\limits_j {\ln } \left\{ {1 - \exp [ - \beta (\varepsilon j - \mu )]} \right\},$$
where the sum is over all single-particle states. In the thermodynamic limit, the pressure as a function of temperature and chemical potential is given by
$$p(T,\mu ) = - {k_B}T\mathop {\lim }\limits_{V \to \infty } \frac{1}{V}\ln \Xi (T,V,\mu ).$$


Liquid Helium Thermodynamic Limit Black Body Radiation Free Fermion Coexistence Region 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Silvio R. A. Salinas
    • 1
  1. 1.Instituto de FisicaUniversidade de São PaoloSão PaoloBrazil

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