Advertisement

Principles of Geriatric Surgery

  • Mark R. Katlic

Abstract

In the new millenium any surgeon who is not already a geriatric surgeon will become one. The population as a whole is aging, and the conditions that most frequently lead to surgery (e.g., atherosclerosis, cancer, arthritis, prostatism, cataract) increase in incidence with increasing years; surgeons have little influence on the age of patients referred for operation. Improving our overall care of the elderly surgical patient—the raison d’etre of this book— will yield great benefit.

Keywords

Elderly Patient Aortic Valve Replacement Acute Cholecystitis Pulmonary Resection Bile Duct Carcinoma 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Smith OC. Advanced age as a contraindication to operation. Med Rec (NY) 1907;72:642–644.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ochsner A. Is risk of operation too great in the elderly? Geriatrics 1967;22:121–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Warner MA, Hosking MP, Lobdell CM, et al. Surgical procedures among those >90 years of age. Ann Surg 1988;207:380–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cohen JR, Johnson H, Eton S, et al. Surgical procedures in patients during the 10th decade of life. Surgery 1988;104:646–651.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Blanche C, Matloff JM, Denton TA, et al. Cardiac operations in patients 90 years of age and older. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:1685–1690.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Alexander HR, Turnball AD, Salamon J, et al. Upper abdominal cancer surgery in the very elderly. J Surg Oncol 1991;47:82–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Katlic MR. Surgery in centenarians. JAMA 1985;253:3139–3141.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lynn BS, Zeppa R. Student attitudes about surgery in older patients before and after a surgical clerkship. Ann Surg 1987;205:324–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Lubin MF. Is age a risk factor for surgery? Med Clin North Am 1993;77:327–333.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Horattas MC, Guyton DT, Wu D. A reappraisal of appendicitis in the elderly. Am J Surg 1990;160:291–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Owens RJ, Hamit HE Appendicitis in the elderly Ann Surg 1978;187:392–396.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Elangovan SE. Clinical and laboratory findings in acute appendicitis in the elderly. J Am Board Fam Pract 1996;9:75–78.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Lan WY, Fan ST, Yiu TF, Chu KW, Lee JMH. Acute appendicitis in the elderly. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1985;161:157–160.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Hall A, Wright T. Acute appendicitis in the geriatric patient. Am Surg 1976;42:147–150.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Paajanen H, Kettunen J, Kostiainen S. Emergency appendectomies in patients over 80 years. Am Surg 1994;60:950–953.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Morrow DJ, Thompson J, Wilson SE. Acute appendicitis in the elderly. Arch Surg 1978;113:1149–1152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Hafif A, Gutman M, Kaplan O, et al. The management of acute cholecystitis in elderly patients. Am Surg 1991;57: 648–652.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Boey JH, Way LW. Acute cholecystitis. Ann Surg 1980; 191:264–269.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Saharia PC, Cameron JL. Clinical management of acute cholecystitis. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1976;142:369–372.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Lygidakis NJ. Choledochoduodenostomy in calculus biliary tract disease. Br J Surg 1981;68:762–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Houghton PWJ, Jenkinson LR, Donaldson LA. Cholecystectomy in the elderly: a prospective study. Br J Surg 1985;72:220–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kurtz RJ, Hermann TM, Bech AR, Kurz AB. Patterns of gallstone ileus over a 45 year period. Am J Gastroenterol 1985;80:95–98.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Roslyn J, Busuttel RW. Perforation of the gallbladder: a frequently mismanaged condition. Am J Surg 1979;137:307–312.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Saunders K, Tompkins R, Longmore W, Roslyn J. Bile duct carcinoma in the elderly. Arch Surg 1991;126:1186–1191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Amberg JR, Zboralske FF. Gastric ulcers after 70. AJR 1966;96:393–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Clinch D. Baneji AK, Ostich G. Absence of abdominal pain in elderly patients with peptic ulcer. Age Ageing 1985; 13:120–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Coleman JA, Denham MJ. Perforation of the peptic ulceration in the aged. Acta Chir Scand 1974;140:396–405.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Kane E, Fried G, McSherry CK. Perforated peptic ulcer in the elderly. J Am Geriatr Soc 1981;29:224–227.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Feyno G. Diagnostic problems of acute abdominal diseases in the aged. Acta Chir Scand 1974;140:396–105.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Narayana M, Steinhuber FU. Changing face of peptic ulcer in the elderly. Med Clin North Am 1976;60:1159–1172.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Rabinovici R, Manny J. Perforated duodenal ulcer in the elderly. Br J Surg 1991;157:121–125.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Werbin N, Kashton H, Wasserman I, Wiznitzer T. Perforated duodenal ulcer in the elderly patient. Can J Surg 1990;33:143–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Mulcahy HE, Patchett SE, Daly L, O’Donoghue DP. Prognosis of elderly patients with large bowel cancer. Br J Surg 1994;81:736–738.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Waiters JM, Blakslee JM, March RJ, Redmond ML. The influence of age on the severity of peritonitis. Can J Surg 1996;39:142–146.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gorman RC, Morris JB, Kaiser LR. Esophageal disease in the elderly patient. Surg Clin North Am 1994;74:93–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Knutson JW, Slavin RG. Sinusitis in the aged. Drugs Aging 1995;7:310–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Norman DC, Toledo DS. Infections in elderly persons: an altered clinical presentation. Clin Geriatr Med 1992;8:713–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Koch WM, Patel H, Brennan J, Boyle JO, Sidransky D. Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck in the elderly. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995;121: 262–265.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Ehlinger P, Fossion E, Vrielinck L. Carcinoma of the oral cavity in patients over 75 years of age. Int J Oral Maxillo-fac Surg 1993;22:218–220.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nelson JF, Ship I. Intraoral carcinoma. J Am Diet Assoc 1971;82:564–568.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ohrvall U, Akerstrom G, Lyringhall S, et al. Surgery for sporadic hyperparathyroidism in the elderly. World J Surg 1994;18:612–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Chigot JP, Menegaux F, Achrafi H. Should primary hyperparathyroidism be treated surgically in elderly patients older than 75 years? Surgery 1995;117:397–401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Whitman ED, Norton JA. Endocrine surgical diseases of elderly patients. Surg Clin North Am 1994;74:127–144.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Thomas PC, Grigg M. Carotid artery surgery in the octogenarian. Aust NZ J Surg 1996;66:231–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Jougon JB, Ballester M, Duffy J, et al. Esophagectomy for cancer in the patient aged 70 years and older. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:1423–1427.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Maurice-Williams RS, Kitchen ND. Intracranial tumors in the elderly: the effect of age on the outcome of first time surgery for meningiomas. Br J Neurosurg 1992;6:131–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Muravchick S. Choosing an anesthetic for the elderly patient. Am Rev PAN 1997;19:117–124.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Piehler JM, Pairolero PC, Weinland LH, et al. Bronchogenic carcinoma with chest wall invasion; factor affecting survival following en bloc resection. Ann Thorac Surg 1982;34:684–691.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Keagy BA, Pharr WF, Bowes DE, Wilcox BR. A review of morbidity and mortality in elderly patients undergoing pulmonary resection. Am Surg 1989;211:141–145.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Naunheim KS, Kesler KA, D’Orazio SA, Fiore AC, Judd DR. Lung cancer surgery in the octogenarian. Eur J Car-diothorac Surg 1994;8:453–456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Dalton ML, Warner RL, Feinberg E. The increased risk of right pneumonectomy in elderly patients. Contemp Surg 1992;41:81–82.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pagni S, Federico JA, Ponn RB. Pulmonary resection for lung cancer in octogenarians. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:785–789.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Massard G, Moog R, Wihlm JM, et al. Bronchogenic cancer in the elderly: operative risk and long-term prognosis. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1996;44:40–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Yano T, Yokoyama H, Fukuyama Y, et al. The current states of postoperative complications and risk factors after a pulmonary resection for primary lung cancer: a multivariate analysis. Eur J Cardiovasc Surg 1997;71:445–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Morandi U, Stefani A, Golinelli M, et al. Results of surgical resection in patients over the age of 70 years with non small-cell lung cancer. Eur J Cardiovasc Surg 1997;11:432–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Nomori H, Horio H, Fuyuno G, Kobayaski R, Yashima H. Respiratory muscle strength after lung resection with special reference to age and procedures of thoracotomy. Eur J Cardiovasc Surg 1996;10:352–358.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Yim APC. Thoracoscopic surgery in the elderly population. Surg Endosc 1996;10:880–882.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Jaklitsch MT, DeCamp MM, Liptay MJ, et al. Video-assisted thoracic surgery in the elderly: a review of 307 cases. Chest 1996;110:751–758.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Bergus BO, Feng WC, Best AA, Singh AK. Aortic valve replacement (AVR): influence of age on operative morbidity and mortality. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1992;6:118–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Salomon NW, Page US, Bigelow JC, et al. Coronary artery bypass grafting in elderly patients: comparative results in a consecutive series of 469 patients older than 75 years. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1991;101:209–218.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Lytle BW, Navia JL, Taylor PC, et al. Third coronary bypass operations: risks and costs. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;64: 1287–1295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Elayda MA, Hall RJ, Reul RM, et al. Aortic valve replacement in patients 80 years and older: operative risks and long term results. Circulation 1993;88:11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Fortner JG, Lincer RM. Hepatic resection in the elderly. Ann Surg 1989;211:141–145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Fong Y, Blum TLH, Fortner JG, Brennan MF. Pancreatic or liver resection for malignancy is safe and effective for the elderly. Ann Surg 1995;222:426–437.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Escarce JJ, Shea JA, Chen W, Qian Z, Schwartz JS. Outcomes of open cholecystectomy in the elderly: a longitudinal analysis of 21,000 cases in the prelaparoscopic era. Surgery 1995;117:156–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Tsujitani S, Katano K, Oka A, et al. Limited operation for gastric cancer in the elderly. Br J Surg 1996;83:836–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Akoh JA, Matthew AM, Chalmers JWT, Finlayson A, Auld GD. Audit of major gastrointestinal surgery in patients aged 80 years or over. J R Coll Surg Edinb 1994;39:208–213.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Seymour DG, Voz FG. A prospective study of elderly general surgical patient. II. Postoperative complications. Age Ageing 1989;18:316–326.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Greenburg AG, Saik RP, Coyle JJ, Peskin GW. Mortality and gastrointestinal surgery in the aged. Arch Surg 1981;116:788–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Gerson MC, Hurst JM, Hertzberg VS, et al. Prediction of cardiac and pulmonary complications related to elective abdominal and noncardiac thoracic surgery in geriatric patients. Am J Med 1990;88:101–107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Reilly JJ. Preparing for pulmonary resection: preoperative evaluation of patients. Chest 1997;112:2065–2085.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Mizushima Y, Noto H, Sugiyama S, et al. Survival and prognosis after pneumonectomy for lung cancer in the elderly. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;64:193–198.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Chagett GP, Anderson FA Jr, Heit J, Levine MN, Wheeler HB. Prevention of venous thromboembolism. Chest 1995; 108(suppl):3125–3345.Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Celis R, Torres A, Gatell JM, et al. Nosocomial pneumonia: a multivariate analysis of risk and prognosis. Chest 1988;93:318–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Iwamoto K, Ichiyama S, Shimokata K, Nokashima H. Postoperative pneumonia in elderly patients: incidence and mortality in comparison with younger patients. Int Med 1993;32:274–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Landau O, Kott I, Deutsch AA, Stelman E, Reiss R. Multifactorial analysis of septic bile and septic complications in biliary surgery. World J Surg 1992;16:962–965.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Meyer WS, Schwartz PIM, Jeekel J. Meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials of antibiotic prophylaxis in biliary tract surgery. Br J Surg l990;77:283–292.Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Berlauk JF, Abrams JH, Gilmour IJ, et al. Preoperative optimization of cardiovascular hemodynamics improves outcome in peripheral vascular surgery. Ann Surg 1991;214: 289–299.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Bender JS, Smith-Meek MA, Jones CE. Routine pulmonary artery catheterization does not reduce morbidity and mortality of elective vascular surgery. Ann Surg 1997;226: 229–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Ziegler DW, Wright JG, Choban PS, Flancbaum L. A prospective randomized trial of preoperative “optimiza-tion” of cardiac function in patients undergoing elective peripheral vascular surgery. Surgery 1997;122:584–592.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bernstein EF, Dilley RB, Randolph HF. The improving long term outlook for patients over 70 years of age with abdominal aortic aneurysms. Ann Surg 1988;207:318–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Leppo JA. Preoperative cardiac risk assessment for non-cardiac surgery. Am J Cardiol 1995;75:42D-51D.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Watters JM, Clancey SM, Moulton SB, Briere KM, Zhu JM. Impaired recovery of strength in older patients after major abdominal surgery. Ann Surg 1993;218:380–393.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Souba WW. Nutritional support. N Engl J Med 1997; 336:41–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Bittner R, Butters M, Ulrich M, Uppenbrink S, Beger HG. Total gastrectomy: updated operative mortality and long-term survival with particular reference to patients older than 70 years of age. Ann Surg 1996;224:37–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lo CY, Van Heerden JA, Grant CS, et al. Adrenal surgery in the elderly: too risky? World J Surg 1996;20:368–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Coyle KA, Smith RB, Salam AA, et al. Carotid endarterec-tomy in the octogenarian. Ann Vasc Surg 1994;8:417–420.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Maehara Y, Oshiro T, Oiwa H, et al. Gastric carcinoma in patients over 70 years of age. Br J Surg 1995;82:102–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Ginsberg RJ, Hill LD, Eagon RT, et al. Modern thirty-day operative mortality for surgical resections in lung cancer. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1983;86:654–658.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Deneffe G, Locquet LM, Verbeken E, Vermant G. Surgical treatment of bronchogenic carcinoma: a retrospective study of 720 thoracotomies. Ann Thorac Surg 1988;45:380–383.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Ishida T, Yohoyama H, Kaneko S, Sugio K, Sugimachi K. Long term results of operation for non-small cell lung cancer in the elderly. Ann Thorac Surg 1990;50:919–922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Breyer RH, Zippe C, Pharr WF, et al. Thoracotomy in patients over age seventy years. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1981;81:187–193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Berggren H, Ekroth R, Malmberg R, Naucler J, William-Olsson G. Hospital mortality and long-term survival in relation to preoperative function in elderly patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. Ann Thorac Surg 1984;38:633–636.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kadri MA, Dussch JE. Survival and prognosis following resection of primary non-small cell bronchogenic carcinoma. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1991;5:132–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Linn BS, Linn MW, Wallen N. Evaluation of results of surgical procedures in the elderly Ann Surg 1982;195:90–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gengian KS, Nambiar R. Major surgery in the elderly—a study of outcome in 295 consecutive cases. Singapore Med J 1989;30:339–342.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Keller SM, Markovitz LJ, Welder JR, Aufses AH. Emergency and elective surgery in patients over age 70. Am Surg 1987;53:636–640.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Pigott JP, Williams JB. Cholecystectomy in the elderly. Am J Surg 1988;155:408–410.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Harnes JK, Stradeo EW, Talsma SE. Symptomatic biliary tract disease in the elderly patient. Am Surg 1986;8: 442–445.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Lo CM, Lai ECS, Fan ST, Liu CLL, Wong J. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for acute cholecystitis in the elderly. World J Surg 1996;20:983–987.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Tsai TP, Matloff JM, Chaux A, et al. Combined valve and coronary artery bypass procedures in septuagenarians and octogenarians: results in 120 patients. Ann Thorac Surg 1986;42:681–684.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Tsai TP, Chaux A, Matloff JM, et al. Ten-year experience of cardiac surgery in patients aged 80 years and over. Ann Thorac Surg 1994;58:445–451.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Peterson ED, Cowper PA, Jollis JG, et al. Outcomes of coronary artery bypass graft surgery in 24,461 patients aged 80 years or older. Circulation 1995;92(suppl 2):85–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Nauheim KS, Dean PA, Fiore AC, et al. Cardiac surgery in the octogenarian. Eur J Cardiovasc Surg 1990;4:130–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Bergus BO, Feng WC, Bert AA, Singh AK. Aortic valve replacement (AVR): influence of age on operative morbidity and mortality. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1992;6:118–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Tseng EE, Lee CA, Cameron DE, et al. Aortic valve replacement in the elderly: risk factors and long-term results. Ann Surg 1997;225:793–804.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Logeais Y, Langanay T, Roussin R, et al. Surgery for aortic stenosis in elderly patients: a study of surgical risk and predictive factors. Circulation 1994;90:2891–2989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Galloway AC, Col vin SB, Grossi EA, et al. Ten-year experience with aortic valve replacement in 482 patients 70 years of age or older: operative risk and long-term results. Ann Thorac Surg 1990;49:84–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Watson RJ, Hooper TO, Ingram G. Duodenal ulcer disease in the elderly: a retrospective study. Age Ageing 1985; 14:225–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Spivak H, Vande Maele D, Friedman I. Colorectal surgery in octogenarians. J Am Coll Surg 1996;183:46–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bender JS, Magnuson TH, Zenilman ME, et al. Outcome following colon surgery in the octogenarian. Am Surg 1996;62:276–279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Vivi AA, Lopes A, Cavalconti SD, Rossi BM, Marques LA. Surgical treatment of colon and rectum adenocarcinoma in elderly patients. J Surg Oncol 1992;51:203–206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Fabre JM, Rouanet P, Ele N, et al. Colorectal carcinoma in patients aged 75 years and more: factors influencing short and long term operative mortality. Int Surg 1993;78:200–203.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Deysine M, Grimson R, Sorrof HS. Herniorrhaphy in the elderly. Am J Surg 1987;153:387–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Nahme AE. Groin hernia in elderly patients: management and prognosis. Am J Surg 1983;146:257–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Burns-Cox N, Campbell WB, VanNimmen AJ, Vercaeren PMK, Lucarotti M. Surgical care and outcome for patients in their nineties. Br J Surg 1997;146:257–260.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Prima testa P, Goldacre MJ. Inguinal hernia repair: incidence of elective and emergency surgery, readmission and mortality. Int J Epidemiol 1996;25:835–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Sisto D, Hoffman D, Frater RWM. Isolated coronary artery bypass grafting in 100 octogenarian patients [letter]. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 1993;106:940–944.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Chen MF, Hivang TL, Jeng LB, Jan YY, Wang CS. Influence of age on results of resection of hepatocellular carcinoma. Eur J Surg 1991;157:591–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Franko E, Cohen JR. General surgical problems requiring operation in postoperative vascular surgery patients. Am J Surg 1991;162:247–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Watemberg S, Landau O, Avrahami R, Nudelman IL, Reiss R. Incidental cholecystectomy in the over 70 age group. Int Surg 1997;82:102–104.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Huchcroft SA, Nicolle LE, Cruse PJE. Surgical wound infection and cancer among the elderly: a case control study. J Surg Oncol 1990;45:250–256.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Adam DJ, Craig SR, Sang CTM, Cameron EWJ, Walker WS. Esophagectomy for carcinoma in the octogenarian. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:190–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Inberg MN, Heinonen R, Lauren P, Rantakokko V, Vikkau SJ. Total and proximal gastrectomy in the treatment of gastric carcinoma: a series of 305 cases. World J Surg 1981;5:249–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Paolini A, Tosato F, Cassese M, et al. Total gastrectomy in the treatment of adenocarcinoma of the cardia. Am J Surg 1986;151:238–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Mathisen DJ, Grillo HC, Wilkins EW, Moncure AC, Hilgenberg AD. Transthoracic esophagectomy: a safe approach to carcinoma of the esophagus. Ann Thorac Surg 1988;45:137–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Bandoh T, Osyama T, Toyoshima H. Total gastrectomy for gastric cancer in the elderly. Surgery 1991;109:136–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Katz NM, Chase G A. Risks of cardiac operations for elderly patients: reduction of the age factor. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:1309–1314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Duque JL, Ramos G, Castrodeza J, et al. Early complications in surgical treatment of lung cancer: a prospective multicenter study. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:944–950.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sherman S, Gaudot CE. The feasibility of thoracotomy for lung cancer in the elderly. JAMA 1987;258:927–930.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Gebitekin C, Gupta NK, Martin PG, Saunders NR, Walker DR. Long-term results in the elderly following pulmonary resection for non-small cell carcinoma. Emerg J Cardiovasc Surg 1993;7:653–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Thomas P, Sielezenff I, Rajni J, Giridicilli R, Fuentes P. Is lung cancer resection justified in patients aged over 70 years? Eur J Cardiovasc Surg 1993;7:246–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Nugent WC, Edmund MT, Hammerness PG, et al. Non-small cell lung cancer at the extremes of age: impact on diagnosis and treatment. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;63:193–197.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Dajczman E, Fa LY, Small D, Wolkove N, Kreisman H. Treatment of small cell lung carcinoma in the elderly. Cancer 1996;77:2032–2038.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Samet J, Hunt WC, Hey C, Humble CG, Goodwin JS. Choice of cancer therapy varies with age of patient. JAMA 1986;255:3885–3390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Irvin TT. Prognosis of colorectal cancer in the elderly. Br J Surg 1988;75:419–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Waldron RP, Dono von IA, Drumm J, Mottram SN, Tedman S. Emergency presentation and mortality from colorectal cancer in the elderly. Br J Surg 1986;73:214–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Wise WE, Padmonabhan A, Meesig DM, et al. Abdominal colon and rectal operations in the elderly. Dis Colon Rectum 1991;34:959–963.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Ondrula DP, Nelson RL, Prasad ML, Coyle BW, Abcarian H. Multifocal index of preoperative risk factors in colon resections. Dis Colon Rectum 1992;35:117–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Avital S, Kashton H, Hadad R, Werbin N. Survival of colorectal carcinoma in the elderly. Dis Colon Rectum 1997;40:523–529.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Hobler KE. Colon surgery for cancer in the very elderly; cost and 3 year survival. Ann Surg 1986;203:129–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Moore DH. Ovarian cancer in the elderly patient. Oncology 1994;8:21–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Singletary SE, Shallenberger R, Guinee VF. Breast cancer in the elderly. Ann Surg 1993;218:6667–6671.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Wanebo HJ, Cole B, Chung M, et al. Is surgical management compromised in elder patients with breast cancer? Ann Surg 1997;225:579–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Swanson RS, Sawicka J, Wood WC. Treatment of carcinoma of the breast in the older geriatric patient. Surg Gynecol Obstet 1991;173:465–469.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Van Dalsen AD, DeVries JE. Treatment of breast cancer in elderly patients. J Surg Oncol 1995;60:80–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Guadagnoli E, Shapiro C, Gurwitz JH, et al. Age-related patterns of care: evidence against ageism in the treatment of early-stage breast cancer. J Clin Oncol 1997;15:2338–2344.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Chalmers RTA, Stonebridge PA, John TG, Murie JA. Abdominal aortic aneurysm in the elderly. Br J Surg 1994;80:1122–1123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Barzan L, Veronesi A, Caruso G, et al. Head and neck cancer and ageing: a retrospective study in 438 patients. J Laryngol Otol 1990;104:634–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    McGuirt WF, Davis SP. Demographic portrayal and outcome analysis of head and neck cancer surgery in the elderly. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1995;121:150–154.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Kowalski LP, Alcantara PSM, Magrin J, Parise O. A case-controlled study on complications and survival in elderly patients undergoing major head and neck surgery. Am J Surg 1994;168:485–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Smith EB, Honigan WC. Surgical results and complications in elderly patients with benign lesions of the spinal cord. J Am Geriatr Soc 1992;40:867–870.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Samii M, Tatagiba M, Matthies C. Acoustic neuroma in the elderly: factors predictive of operative outcome. Neurosurgery 1992;31:615–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Schroe H, Suy R, Nevelsteen A. Carotid artery endarterec-tomy in patients over seventy years of age. Ann Vasc Surg 1990;4:133–137.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Favre JP, Guy JM, Frering V, Boissier C, Barrai X. Carotid surgery in the octogenarian. Ann Vasc Surg 1994;8:421–426.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Treiman RL, Wagner WH, Forin RF, et al. Carotid end-arterectomy in the elderly. Ann Vasc Surg 1992;6:321–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Canver CC, Nichols RD, Coller SD, Heisey DM, Murray EL, Cronke GM. Influence of increasing age on long-term survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;62:1123–1127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Akins CW, Daggett WM, Vlahakes GJ, et al. Cardiac operations in patients 80 years old and older. Ann Thorac Surg 1997;64:606–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Chocron S, Rude N, Dussaucy A, et al. Quality of life after open-heart surgery in patients over 75 years old. Age Ageing 1996;25:8–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Muehrcke DD, Blank S, Daggett WM. Survival after repair of postinfarction ventricular septal defects in patients over the age of 70. J Cardiac Surg 1992;7:290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Shapira OM, Kelleher RM, Zelingher J, et al. Prognosis and quality of life after valve surgery in patients older than 75 years. Chest 1997;112:885–894.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Adam DJ, Craig SR, Sang CTM, Cameron EWJ, Walker WS. Esophagectomy for carcinoma in the octogenarian. Ann Thorac Surg 1996;61:190–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Thomas P, Doddoli C, Neville P, et al. Esophageal cancer resection in the elderly. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 1996;10:941–946.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    O’Sullivan KL, Hart MJ. Pancreaticoduodenectomy in the elderly: a ten year experience. Contemp Surg 1996;48:265–269.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Matthews CM, Morris M, Burke TW, et al. Pelvic exenteration in the elderly. Obstet Gynecol 1992;79:773–777.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Levrant SG, Fruchter RG, Maiman M. Radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer: morbidity and survival in relation to weight and age. Gynecol Oncol 1992;45:317–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Geisler JP, Geisler HE. Radical hysterectomy in patients 65 years of age and older. Gynecol Oncol 1994;53:208–211.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Zicat B, Rorabeck CH, Bourne RB, Devane PA, Nott L. Total knee arthroplasty in the octogenarian. J Arthroplasty 1993;8:395–400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Anderson JG, Wixson RL, Tsai D, Stulberg SD, Chang RW. Functional outcome and patient satisfaction in total knee patients over the age of 75. J Arthroplasty 1996;11:831–840.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Malata CM, Cooper RD, Batchelor AGG, et al. Microvascular free-tissue transfers in elderly patients: the Leeds experience. Plast Reconstr Surg 1996;98:1234–1241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Gianetta E, DeCian F, Cuneo S, et al. Hernia repair in elderly patients. Br J Surg 1997;84:983–985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Dunlop WE, Rosenblood L, Lawrason L, Birdsall L, Rusnak CH. Effects of age and severity of illness on outcome and length of stay in geriatric surgical patients. Am J Surg 1993;165:577–580.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark R. Katlic

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations