Advertisement

Physiologic Changes in Respiratory Function

  • Edward J. Campbell

Abstract

A substantial proportion of the excess operative risk among elderly patients is attributable to respiratory complications. The excess risk is explained in part by structural and functional changes in the respiratory system associated with aging. These changes are progressive even in individuals who enjoy apparently good health and are most marked beyond 60 years of age.

Keywords

Functional Residual Capacity Ventilatory Response Maximal Inspiratory Pressure Recoil Pressure Respiratory Muscle Strength 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gibellino F, Osmanliev DP, Watson A, Pride NB. Increase in tracheal size with age: implications for maximal expiratory flow. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985;132:784–787.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Thurlbeck WM, Angus GE. Growth and aging of the normal human lung. Chest 1975;67:3S-7S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Snider GL, Kleinerman J, Thurlbeck WM, Bengali ZH. The definition of emphysema: report of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, Division of Lung Diseases workshop. Am Rev Respir Dis 1985;132:182–185.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pump KK. The aged lung. Chest 1971;60:571–577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ryan SF, Vincent TN, Mitchell RS, Filley GF, Dart G. Duct-ectasia: an asymptomatic pulmonary change related to age. Med Thorac 1965;22:181–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pride NB. Pulmonary distensibility in age and disease. Bull Eur Physiopathol Respir 1974;124:103–108.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Knudson RJ, Clark DF, Kennedy TC, Knudson DE. Effect of aging alone on mechanical properties of the normal adult human lung. J Appl Physiol 1977;43:1054–1062.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Turner JM, Mead J, Wohl ME. Elasticity of human lungs in relation to age. J Appl Physiol 1968;25:664–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pierce JA, Ebert RV. Fibrous network of the lung and its change with age. Thorax 1965;20:469–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Pierce JA, Hocott JB, Ebert RV. The collagen and elastin content of the lung in emphysema. Ann Intern Med 1961;55:210–222.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shapiro SD, Pierce JA, Endicott SK, Campbell EJ. Marked longevity of human lung parenchymal elastic fibers deduced from prevalence of D-aspartate and nuclear weapons-related radiocarbon. J Clin Invest 1991;87:1828–1834.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Mittman C, Edelman NH, Norris AH, Shock NW. Relationship between chest wall and pulmonary compliance and age. J Appl Physiol 1965;20:1211–1216.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crapo RO, Campbell EJ. Aging of the respiratory system. In: Fishman AP, Elias JA, Fishman JA, Grippi MA, Kaiser LR, Senior RM (eds) Fishman’s Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1998:251–264.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Black LF, Hyatt RE. Maximal respiratory pressures: normal values and relationship to age and sex. Am Rev Respir Dis 1969;99:696–702.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    McElvaney GL, Blackie S, Morrison NJ, Wilcox PG, Fairbarn MS, Pardy RL. Maximal static respiratory pressures in the normal elderly. Am Rev Respir Dis 1995;139:277–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chen H-S, Kuo C-S. Relationship between respiratory muscle function and age, sex, and other factors. J Appl Physiol 1989;56:1143–1150.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Stanley G, Verotta D, Craft N, Siegel RA, Schwartz JB. Age and autonomic effects on interrelationships between lung volume and heart rate. Am J Physiol 1996;270:H1833-H1840.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Stanley G, Verotta D, Craft N, Siegel RA, Schwartz JB. Age effects on interrelationships between lung volume and heart rate during standing. Am J Physiol 1997;273:H2128-H2134.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Brichetto MJ, Millman RP, Peterson DD, Silage DA, Pack AI. Effect of aging on ventilatory response to exercise and CO2. J Appl Physiol 1984;56:1143–1150.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Chapman KR, Cherniack NS. Aging effects on the interaction of hypercapnia and hypoxia as ventilatory stimuli. J Gerontol 1987;42:202–209.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kronenberg RS, Drage CW. Attenutation of the ventilatory and heart rate responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia with aging in normal men. J Clin Invest 1973;53:1812–1819.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peterson DD, Pack AI, Silage DA, Fishman AP. Effects of aging on the ventilatory and occlusion pressure responses to hypoxia and hypercapnia. Am Rev Respir Dis 1981; 124:387–391.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Peterson DD, Fishman AP. Aging of the respiratory system. In: Fishman AP (ed) Update: Pulmonary Diseases and Disorders. McGraw-Hill: New York, 1992:1–17.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Akiyama Y, Nishimura M, Kobayashi S, Yamamoto M, Miyamoto K, Kawakami Y. Effects of aging on respiratory load compensation and dyspnea sensation. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;148:1586–1591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Quanjer PH. Standardized lung function. Bull Eur Phys-iopathol Res 1983;19:45–51.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Quanjer PH. Standardized lung function. Bull Eur Phys-iopathol Res 1983;19:66–92.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Ware JH, Dockery DW, Louis TA, et al. Longitudinal and cross-sectional estimates of pulmonary function decline in never-smoking adults. Am J Epidemiol 1990;131:685–700.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    McClaran SR, Babcock MA, Pegelow DF, Reddan WG, Dempsey JA. Longitudinal effects of aging on lung function at rest and exercise in healthy active fit elderly adults. J Appl Physiol 1995;78:1957–1958.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Nunn AJ, Gregg I. New regression equations for predicting peak expiratory flow in adults. Br Med J 1989;298:1068–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Crapo RO, Gardner RM. Single breath carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (transfer factor): recommendations for a standard technique. Am Rev Respir Dis 1987;136:1299–1307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Stam H, Hrachovina V, Stijnen T, Versprille A. Diffusing capacity dependent on lung volume and age in normal subjects. J Appl Physiol 1994;76:2356–2363.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Neas LM, Schwartz J. The determinants of pulmonary diffusing capacity in a national sample of U.S. adults. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1966;153:656–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Sorbini CA, Grassi V, Solinas E, Muiesan G. Arterial oxygen tension in relation to age in healthy subjects. Respiration 1968;25:3–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Edward J. Campbell

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations