Advertisement

Hypoxia pp 61-73 | Cite as

Hypoxia training for sea-level performance

Training high — living low
  • Hans Hoppeler
  • Michael Vogt
Part of the Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology book series (AEMB, volume 502)

Abstract

It is widely accepted that prolonged exposure to extreme altitude is detrimental for exercise performance and muscle structure. Moreover, highly trained subjects seem to suffer more under hypoxic conditions than untrained people. When using hypoxia as an ergogenic stimulus in athletes, it has thus become customary to limit hypoxia exposure in terms of altitude and duration of exposure in order to achieve defined physiologic goals. If hypoxia application is limited to the duration of training sessions, specific hypoxia responses on the molecular level in skeletal muscle tissue can be demonstrated. Hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 αmRNA) is upregulated after 6 weeks of endurance training in hypoxia (equivalent to an altitude of 3850m) in previously untrained subjects. This upregulation is independent of training intensity but not observed in subjects training under similar conditions in normoxia. High intensity training in hypoxia further results in an increase of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) mRNA, capillarity and myoglobin mRNA. These results suggest that hypoxia training results in improvements of the oxygen transfer capacity in skeletal muscle tissue. They thus offer a plausible explanation for the observation that effects of hypoxia training in athletes can best be demonstrated when performance tests are carried out in hypoxia. Beneficial effects of “training high — living low” for sea level performance of athletes can be inferred from the structural changes observed in muscle tissue; however, the functional improvements remain to be demonstrated directly.

Key words

skeletal muscle mRNA HIF VO2max oxidative enzymes mitochondria HSP 70 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Bailey DM, and Davies B. Physiological implications of altitude training for endurance performance at sea level: A review. Br J Sports Med 31: 183–190, 1997.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Breen EC, Johnson EC, Wagner H, Tseng HM, Sung LA, and Wagner PD. Angiogenic growth factor mRNA responses in muscle to a single bout of exercise. J Appl Physiol 81(1): 355–361, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cerretelli P, and Hoppeler H. Morphologic and metabolic response to chronic hypoxia: The muscle system. In: Handbook of Physiology Section 4, Environmental Physiology, Volume 2, Fregly MJ, Blatteis CM (eds), Oxford University Press, 1996, pp 1155–1181.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Chapman RF, Stray-Gundersen J, and Levine BD. Individual variation in response to altitude training. J Appl Physiol 85(4): 1448–1456, 1998.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Desplanches D, Hoppeler H, Linossier MT, Denis C, Claassen H, Dormois D, Lacour JR, and Geyssant A. Effects of training in normobaric hypoxia on human muscle ultrastructure. Pfluegers Arch 425: 263–267, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Desplanches, D, Hoppeler H, Tuescher L, Mayet MH, Spielvogel H, Ferretti G, Kayser B, Leuenberger M, Gruenenfelder A, and Favier R. Muscle tissue adaptation of high- altitude natives to training in chronic hypoxia or acute normoxia. J Appl Physiol 81: 1946–1951, 1996.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Geiser J, Vogt M, Billeter R, Zuleger C, Belforti F, and Hoppeler H. Training high — living low: changes of aerobic performance and muscle structure with training at simulated altitude. Int J Sports Med, in press: 2001.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Grassi B, Kayser BEJ, Binzoni T, Marzorati M, Bordini M, Marconi C, and Cerretelli P. Peak blood lactate concentration during altitude acclimatization and deacclimatization in humans. Pfluegers Arch 420: R165(A).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Green HJ, Sutton JR, Cymerman A, Young PM, and Houston CS. Operation Everest II: Adaptations in human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 66: 2454–2461, 1989.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hoppeler H, Kleinert E, Schlegel C, Claassen H, Howald H, and Cerretelli P. Muscular exercise at high altitude: II Morphological adaptation of skeletal muscle to chronic hypoxia. Int J Sport Med 11: S3–S9, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Hoppeler H, and Vogt M. Muscle tissue adaptations to hypoxia. J Exp Biol, accepted: 2001.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Levine et al. 2001, same issue.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meeuwsen T, and Hendrikson IJM. Training-induced increases in sea-level performance is enhanced by acute intermittent hypobaric hypoxia. Eur J Appl Physiol, in press: 2001.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Reynafarje B. Myoglobin content and enzymatic activity of muscle and altitude adaptation. J Appl Physiol 17: 301–305, 1962.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Richardson RS, Wagner H, Mudaliar SR, Henry R, Noyszewski EA, and Wagner PD. Human VEGF gene expression in skeletal muscle: effect of acute normoxic and hypoxic exercise. Am J Physiol 277: H2247–H2252, 1999.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Terrados N, Jansson E, Sylven C, and Kaijser L. Is hypoxia a stimulus for synthesis of oxidative enzymes and myoglobin? J Appl Physiol 68: 2369–2372, 1990.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Terrados N, Melichna J, Sylven C, Jansson E, and Kaijser L. Effects of training at simulated altitude on performance and muscle metabolic capacity in competitive road cyclists. Eur J Appl Physiol 57: 203–209, 1988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vogt M, Puntschart A, Geiser J, Zuleger Ch, Billeter R, and Hoppeler H. Training high-living low: molecular adaptations in human skeletal muscle to endurance training under simulated high-altitude conditions. J Appl Physiol, in press: 2001.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Vogt M, Werlen L, and Hoppeler H. Spielformen des Höhentrainings. Schweiz Zeitschr Sportmed Sporttraumat 47: 125–128, 1999.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Wenger RH, and Gassmann M. Oxygen(es) and the hypoxia-inducible factor-1. Biol Chem 378: 609–616, 1997.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hans Hoppeler
    • 1
  • Michael Vogt
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of AnatomyUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations