Comparison of Quantification Methods for the Condensed Tannin Content of Extracts of Pinus Pinaster Bark
Bark from Pinus Pinaster is an interesting source of polyphenolic natural compounds, that can be used successfully as total or partial replacement of conventional phenolic resins. These compounds, among other applications, are used as adhesives in the wood agglomerate industry. In this kind of application some problems remain to be solved in order to obtain a Pine extract of commercial value. It is necessary to optimise the extraction procedure and select a suitable method for the quantification of the tannin content of the bark. In order to study these problems, the tannin extraction from the Pine bark was tested with an alkaline solution (NaOH), and with a fractionation procedure based on a sequence of an organic (ethanol) and aqueous extraction. The phenolic content of each extract or fraction was evaluated by the FolinCiocalteu colorimetric assay for total phenols and two procedures using the Stiasny reaction: the gravimetric Stiasny method and the indirect colorimetric procedure that uses the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent to evaluate the total phenols present in the extract solution before and after it condenses with formaldehyde. The yield value when the alkaline extraction is used is substantially higher than the values obtained with organic or aqueous solutions. However, the selectivity of the process is low. In fact, it was found that the alkaline extract Formaldehyde Condensable Phenolic Material (FCPM) content represents 95-96 % of the total phenols content of the extract but this fraction is only ≈ 40 % of the total mass of extract. So, the alkaline extract is relatively poor in phenolic material, exhibiting a large variety of non-phenolic extractives. On the other end, ethanol provides a very rich phenolic extract, in which 96 % of total phenols are condensable with formaldehyde, but exhibits a relatively low extraction yield. The aqueous extract presents the lowest extraction yield with low content either in phenolic material as in FCPM, but, as most of the phenolics had already been extracted by the previous organic extraction, especially the low molecular weight fractions, this result was predictable.
KeywordsGallic Acid Total Phenol Content Total Phenol Condensed Tannin Tannin Content
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