Properties of PHAs and their Correlation to Fermentation Conditions



This paper presents part of the results obtained during an ICBT short term scientific exchange mission at the University of Pisa, Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale. Several samples of 3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate (PHBV) with comonomer contents in the range of 2,5 to 76 % were produced in fed batch fermentations with different strains under varying cultivation conditions. These samples were characterized by DSC, TGA, GPC, 1H-NMR. Under certain PHA producing conditions, PHA quality and processability are rather bad due to an inhomogeneous distribution of the 3HV units in the polymer while polymers from other fermentations have excellent properties. Analysis of these fermentation conditions resulted in very important hints for improvement of existing and development of future fermentation processes. A strong dependence of the molecular weight distribution of the polymer on the main carbon source used in the fermentation was also found.


Molecular Weight Distribution Fermentation Condition Main Carbon Source Comonomer Content Pseudomonas Oleovorans 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Dawes, E. A., and Senior, P. J., 1973, The role and regulation of energy reserve polymers in micro-organisms. Adv. Microbiol. Physiol. 10: 135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anderson, A. J., and Dawes, E. A., 1990, Occurrence, metabolism, metabolic role, and industrial uses of bacterial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Microbiol. Rev. 54: 450Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Braunegg, G., Lefebvre, G., and Genser, K., 1998, Polyhydroxyalkanoates, Biopolyesters from renewable resources. J. Biotechnol. 65: 127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Braunegg, G., and Bogensberger, B., 1985, Zur Kinetik des Wachstums und der Speicherung von Poly-D(-)-3-hydroxybuttersäure bei Alcaligenes latus. Acta Biotechnol. 4: 339CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Braunegg, G., Lefebvre, G., Renner, G., Zeiser, A., Haage, G., and Loidl-Lanthaler, K., 1995, Kinetics as a tool for polyhydroxyalkanoate production optimisation. Can.J. Microbiol. 41: 239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fritsche, K., Lenz, R.W., and Fuller, R.C., 1990, Bacterial polyesters containing branched poly(f3-hydroxyalkanoate) units. Int.J.Biol.Macromol. 12: 92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Fritsche, K., Lenz, R.W., and Fuller, R.C., 1990, Production of unsaturated polyesters by Pseudomonas oleovorans. Int.J.Biol.Macromol. 12:85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bear, M. M., Leboucherdurand, M. A., Langlois, V., Lenz, R. W., Goodwin, S., and Guerin, P., 1997, Bacterial Poly-3-Hydroxyalkanoates with Epoxy Groups in the SideChains. React. Funct. Polymers 34: 65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim, Y. B., Lenz, R. W., and Fuller, R. C., 1991, Preparation and characterization of poly(ß-hydroxyalkanoates) obtained from Pseudomonas oleovorans grown with mixtures of 5-phenylvaleric acid and n-alkanoic acids. Macromolecules 24: 5256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Abe, C., Taima, Y., Nakamura, Y., and Doi, Y., 1990, New bacterial copolyesters of 3-hydroxyalkanoates and 3-hydroxy-ω-fluoroalkanoates by Pseudomonas oleovorans. Polym. Commun. 31: 404Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Doi, Y., and Abe, C., 1990, Biosynthesis and characterization of a new bacterial copolyester of 3-hydroxyalkanoates and 3-hydroxy-ω-chloroalkanoates. Macromolecules 23: 3705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Kim, Y. B., Lenz, R. W., and Fuller, R. C., 1992, Poly(3-hydroxyalkanoate) copolymers containing brominated repeating units produced by Pseudomonas oleovorans. Macromolecules 25: 1852CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Saito, Y., Nakamura, S., Hiramitsu, M., and Doi, Y., 1996, Microbial Synthesis and Properties of Poly(3- Hydroxybutyrate-co-4-Hydroxybutyrate). Polym. Int. 39: 169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Doi, Y., Tamaki, A., Kunioka, M., and Soga, K., 1987, Biosynthesis of terpolyestecs of 3-hydroxybutyrate, 3-hydroxyvalerate, and 5-hydroxyvalerate in Alcaligenes eutrophus from 5-chloropentanoic and pentanoic acids. Makromol. Chem., Rapid Commun. 8: 631CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kunioka, M., Nakamura, Y., and Doi, Y., 1988, New bacterial copolyesters produced in Alcaligenes eutrophus from organic acids. Polym. Commun. 29: 174Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Doi, Y., 1990, Microbial polyesters, VCH Publishers Inc., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Madden L.A. et al., 1999, Chain termination in polyhydroxyalkanoate synthesis: involvement of exogenous hydroxy-compounds as chain transfer agents. lnt. J. Biol. Macromol. 25: 43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hori K. et al., 1994, Effects of culture conditions on molecular weights of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) produced by Pseudomonas putida from octanoate. Biotechnol. Lett. 16 (7): 709CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Madden L.A. and Anderson, A.J., 1998, Synthesis and characterization of poly(3-hydroxy-butyrate and poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) polymer mixtures produced in high-density fed-batch cultures of Ralstonia eutropha (Alcaligenes eutrophus). Macromolecules 31: 5660CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für BiotechnologieTU-GrazGrazAustria
  2. 2.Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica IndustrialeUniversità di PisaPisaItaly

Personalised recommendations