Advertisement

The Effect of Climatic Variation on Pelagic Fish and Fisheries

  • Jürgen Alheit
  • Eberhard Hagen
Chapter

Abstract

Evidence is accumulating that marine ecosystems undergo decadal-scale fluctuations which appear to be driven by climate variability (e.g. Beamish, 1995; Bakun, 1996). Climatic variations affect marine communities and trophodynamic relationships, and may induce regime shifts where the dominant species replace each other on decadal time scales. One way to predict how marine ecosystems will react to future climate variability or to climatic change is to search for causal relationships of past patterns of natural variability and to draw conclusions on the basis of retrospective studies. Long-term biological time-series are essential for such retrospective analyses of climate impact on marine ecosystems; however, they are not readily available. Because of their economical importance, fish populations usually provide longer records than other biological components of marine ecosystems. The dynamics of exploited fish populations are affected by both environmental variability and man-made activities (fishing, habitat alteration) and retrospective studies will help to distinguish between the two. Earlier summaries on climate and fisheries have been published by e.g. Cushing (1982), Wyatt and Larraneta (1988), and Laevastu (1993). More recently, further studies have been stimulated by: the world-wide public awareness of global changes and the predicted greenhouse effect; the initiation of global international research programmes such as the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); vastly improved co-operation across disciplinary boundaries; and accumulating knowledge on climate variability, particularly on the decadal scale.

Keywords

North Atlantic Oscillation Index Metric Tonne Small Pelagic Fish Sardine Population International Geosphere Biosphere Programme 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alheit, J., and Bernal, P., 1993, Effects of physical and biological changes on the biomass yield of the Humboldt Current ecosystem, in: Large Marine Ecosystems — Stress, Mitigation and Sustainability. K. Sherman, L.M. Alexander and B.D. Gold, eds., American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington.Google Scholar
  2. Alheit, J., and Hagen, E., 1997, Long-term climate forcing of European herring and sardine populations, Fish. Oceanogr. 6: 130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alheit, J., and Hagen, E., 2000, Climate variability and historical NW European Fisheries, in: Past Climate and its Significance for Human History in NW Europe,the Last 10 000 Years, in press.Google Scholar
  4. Bakun, A., 1996, Patterns in the Ocean: Ocean Processes and Marine Population Dynamics, University of California Sea Grant, San Diego.Google Scholar
  5. Bakun, A., 1998a, Radical interdecadal stock variability and the triad concept: a window of opportunity for fishery management science? in: Reinventing Fisheries Management, T.J. Pitcher, P.J.B. Hart and D. Pauly, eds., Chapman and Hall, London.Google Scholar
  6. Bakun, A., 1998b, Global climatic teleconnections and fisheries ecology. A perspective (with comments on the Benguela system), Paper distributed at International Symposium on Environmental Variability in the South-East Atlantic, Swakopmund, Namibia, 30 March — 1 April 1998.Google Scholar
  7. Baumann, M., 1998, The fallacy of the missing middle: physics fisheries, Fish. Oceanogr. 7: 63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumgartner, T.R., Soutar, A., and Ferreira-Bartrina, V., 1992, Reconstruction of the history of Pacific sardine and northern anchovy populations over the past two millennia from sediments of the Santa Barbara Basin, California. Calif. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 33: 24.Google Scholar
  9. Beamish, R.J., ed., 1995, Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations, Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aqat. Sci. 121.Google Scholar
  10. Bernal, P.A., Robles, F., and Rojas, O., 1983, Variabilidad fisica y biologica en la region meridional del sistema de corrientes Chile-Peru. FAO Fish. Rep. 29: 683.Google Scholar
  11. Beverton, R.J.H., and Lee, A.J., 1965, Hydrodynamic fluctuations in the North Atlantic Ocean and some biological consequences, in: The Biological Significance of Climatic Changes in Britain, C.G. Johnson and L.P. Smith, eds, Academic Press, New York.Google Scholar
  12. Brodeur, R.D., and Ware, D.M., 1992, Long-term variability in zooplankton biomass in the subarctic Pacific Ocean, Fish. Oceanogr. 1: 32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Carrasco, S., and Lozano, O., 1989, Seasonal and long-term variations of zooplankton volumes in the Peruvian Sea, 1964–1987, in: The Peruvian Upwelling Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions, D Pauly, P. Muck, J. Mendo and I. Tsukayama, eds, ICLARM Conference Proceedings 18: 82.Google Scholar
  14. Castillo, S., and Mendo, J., 1987, Estimation of unregistered Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) in official catch statistics, 1951 to 1982, in: The Peruvian Anchoveta and its Upwelling Ecosystem: Three Decades of Change, D. Pauly and I. Tsukayama, eds, ICLARM Studies and Reviews 15: 109.Google Scholar
  15. Crawford, R.J.M., Shannon, L.V., and Shelton, P.A., 1988, Characteristics and management of the Benguela as a large marine ecosystem, in: Biomass Yields and Geography of Large Marine Ecosystems, K. Sherman and L.M. Alexander, eds, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington.Google Scholar
  16. Crawford, R.J.M., and Jahnke, J., 1999, Comparison of trends in abundance of guano-producing seabirds in Peru and southern Africa, S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 21: 145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Csirke, J., Guevara-Carrasco, R., Cárdenas, G., Niquen, M., and Cipollini, A., 1996, Situacion de los recursos anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) y sardina (Sardinops sagax) a principios de 1994 y perspectivas para la pesca en el Peru, con particular referencia a las regiones norte y centro de la costa Peruana, Bol. Instituto del Mar del Peru 15: 1.Google Scholar
  18. Cushing, D., 1982, Climate and Fisheries, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  19. Cushing, D., and Dickson, R.R., 1976, The biological response in the sea to climatic changes, Adv. Mar. Biol. 14: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Deser, C., and Blackmon, M. L., 1993, Surface climate variations over the North Atlantic ocean during winter: 1900–1989, J. Climate 6: 1743.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Devoid, F., 1963, The life history of the Atlanto-Scandian herring, Rapp. Proc.-verb. Réun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 154: 98.Google Scholar
  22. Fraedrich, K., 1994, An ENSO impact over Europe? Tellus 46A: 541.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Francis, R.C., and Hare, S.R., 1994, Decadal-scale regime shifts in the large marine ecosystems of the Northeast Pacific: a case for historical science, Fish. Oceanogr. 3: 279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Francis, R.C., Hare, S.R., Hollowed, A.B., and Wooster, W.S., 1998, Effects of interdecadal climate variability on the oceanic ecosystems of the NE Pacific, Fish. Oceanogr. 7: 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fritts, H.C., 1991, Reconstructing large-scale Climate Patterns from Tree-ring data, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.Google Scholar
  26. Glantz, M.H., 1996, Currents of Change — El Nino’s impact on climate and society, University Press, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  27. Grötzner, A., Latif, M., Timmermann A., and Voss R., 1998, Internal to decadal predictability in a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model, Max-Planck-Institut für Meteorologie Hamburg, Report No. 262.Google Scholar
  28. Hare, S.R. and Francis, R.C., 1995, Climate change and salmon production in the Northeast Pacific Ocean, in: Climate Change and Northern Fish Populations, R.J. Beamish, ed., Can. Spec. Publ. Fish. Aqat. Sci. 121: 357.Google Scholar
  29. Höglund, H., 1978, Long-term variations in the Swedish herring fishery off Bohuslän and their relation to North Sea herring, Rapp. Proc.-verb. Réun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 172: 175.Google Scholar
  30. Hunter, J.R. and Alheit, J., 1995, International GLOBEC Small Pelagic Fishes and Climate Change program. GLOBEC Report No. 8.Google Scholar
  31. IGBP, 1997, Global Ocean Ecosystem Dynamics (GLOBEC) — Science Plan. IGBP Report 40.Google Scholar
  32. Isaacs, J.D., 1976, Some ideas and frustrations about fishery science, Cal. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 18: 34.Google Scholar
  33. Kawasaki, T., 1983, Why do some pelagic fishes have wide fluctuations in their numbers? — Biological basis of fluctuation from the viewpoint of evolutionary ecology, FAO Fish. Rep. 291: 1065.Google Scholar
  34. Kikuchi, T., 1959, A relation between the alternation between good and poor catches of sardine and the establishment of Shinden and Naya villages, Memorial Works dedicated to Professor K. Uchida: 84.Google Scholar
  35. Kushnir, Y., 1994, Interdecadal variations in the North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions, J. Climate 7: 141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Laevastu, T., 1993, Marine Climate, Weather and Fisheries, Fishing News Books, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford.Google Scholar
  37. Lamb, H.H., 1972, Climate: Past, Present and Future. I. Fundamentals and Climate Now. Methuen, London. Latif, M. and Barnett, T.P., 1996, Decadal variability over the North Pacific and North America: dynamics and predictability, J. Climate 9: 2407.Google Scholar
  38. Lindquist, A., 1983, Herring and sprat: fishery independent variations in abundance. FAO Fish. Rep. 291: 813.Google Scholar
  39. Ljungman, A., 1879, Contribution towards solving the question of the secular periodicity of the great herring fisheries, US Commission Fish Fisheries 7 (7): 497.Google Scholar
  40. Lluch-Belda, D., Crawford, R.J.M., Kawasaki, T., MacCall, A.D., Parrish, R.H., Schwartzlose, R.A., and Smith, P.E., 1989, World-wide fluctuations of sardine and anchovy stocks: the regime problem, S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 8: 195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lluch-Belda, D., Schwartzlose, R.A., Serra, R., Parrish, R., Kawasaki, T., Hedgecock, D., and Crawford, R.J.M., 1992, Sardine and anchovy regime fluctuations of abundance in four regions of the world oceans: a workshop report, Fish. Oceanogr. 1: 339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Loeb, V.J., and Rojas, O., 1988, Interannual variation of ichthyoplankton composition and abundance relations off northern Chile, 1964–83, Fish. Bull., U.S. 86: 1.Google Scholar
  43. MacCall, A.D., 1996, Patterns of low-frequency variability in fish populations of the California Current, Cal. Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 37: 100.Google Scholar
  44. Pauly, D., and Palomares, J.L., 1989, New estimates of monthly biomass, recruitment, and related statistics of anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) off Peru (4°-14°S), 1953–1985, in: The Peruvian Upwelling Google Scholar
  45. Ecosystem: Dynamics and Interactions. D. Pauly, P. Muck, J. Mendo and I. Tsukayama, eds, ICLARM Conference Proceedings 18:189.Google Scholar
  46. Russell, F.S., 1973, A summary of the observations on the occurrence of the planktonic stages of fish off Plymouth 1924–1972, J. mar. Biol. Ass. U.K. 53: 347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sahrhage, D., and Lundbeck, J., 1992, A History of Fishing, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.Google Scholar
  48. Schwartzlose, R.A., Alheit, J., Bakun, A., Baumgartner, T., Cloete, R., Crawford, R.J.M., Fletcher, W.J., Green-Ruiz, Y., Hagen, E., Kawasaki, T., Lluch-Belda, D., Lluch-Cota, S.E., MacCall, A.D., Matsuura, Y., Nevarez-Martinez, M.O., Parrish, R.H., Roy, C., Serra, R., Shust, K.V., Ward, N.M. and Zuzunaga, J.Z. 1999, Worldwide large-scale fluctuations of sardine and anchovy populations, S. Afr. J. mar. Sci. 21: 289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Skjoldal, H.R., Noji, T.T., Giske, J., Fossa, J.H., Blindheim, J. and Sundby, S., 1993, MARE COGNITUM Science Plan for Research on Marine Ecology of the Nordic Seas, Inst. Mar. Res., Bergen.Google Scholar
  50. Soutar, A., and Isaacs, J.D., 1969, History of fish populations inferred from fish scales in anaerobic sediments off California, Calif Coop. Oceanic Fish. Invest. Rep. 13: 63.Google Scholar
  51. Soutar, A., and Isaacs, J.D., 1974, Abundance of pelagic fish during the 19’h and 20th centuries as recorded in anaerobic sediment off the Californias, Fish. Bull., U.S. 72: 257.Google Scholar
  52. Southward, A.J., 1980, The Western English Channel — an inconstant ecosystem, Nature 285: 361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Southward, A.J., Boalch, G.T., and Maddock, L., 1988, Fluctuations in the herring and pilchard fisheries of Devon and Cornwall linked to change in climate since the 16th century, J. mar. Biol. Ass. 68: 423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tsuboi, M., 1987, Japanese sardine spawning grounds circuiting around Honshu, Shikoku and Kyushu (1–3), Sakana (Bull. Tokai Reg. Fish. Lab.), 38–40 (in Japanese).Google Scholar
  55. Tsukayama, I., 1983, Recursos pelagicos y sus pesquerias en el Peru, Rev. Corn. Perm. Pacifico Sur 13: 25.Google Scholar
  56. Weisse, R. B., and Mikolajewicz, U., 1994, Decadal variability of the North Atlantic in ocean general circulation model, J. Geophys. Res. 99: 1 2411.Google Scholar
  57. Wyatt, T., and Larraneta, M.G., 1988, Long Term Changes in Marine Fish Population, Instituto de Investigaciones Marinas, Vigo.Google Scholar
  58. Yasuda, I., Sugisaki, H., Watanabe, Y., Minobe, S.-S., and Oozeki, Y., 1999, Interdecadal variations in Japanese sardine and ocean/climate. Fish. Oceanogr. 8: 18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Zuta, S., Tsukayama, I., and Villanueva, R., 1983, El ambiente marino y las fluctuaciones de las principales poblaciones pelagicas de la costa peruana, FAO Fish. Rep. 291: 179.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2001

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jürgen Alheit
    • 1
  • Eberhard Hagen
    • 1
  1. 1.Baltic Sea Research InstituteWarnemündeGermany

Personalised recommendations