The Struggle Against Female Genital Mutilation/Female Circumcision
The number of immigrants in Europe from African communities affected by female genital mutilation (FGM) is unknown. Several European countries developed activities to combat FGM on four levels: European policy, health care, academic, and community. The European Network towards the Prevention of FGM has been set up to coordinate activities at all levels. The European Network aims to: (1) exchange information and experiences at the community level; (2) harmonize various training guidelines for health professionals and guidelines for caring of women with FGM; and (3) harmonize research efforts in Europe. The outcomes of the first year of the European Network are: (1) a draft of a manual for a “model of good practice;” (2) a framework to develop training guidelines for health care professionals and a framework to develop guidelines for caring of women with FGM; and (3) an agenda with research priorities on FGM, focusing on the European context.
KeywordsAsylum Seeker Child Protection Female Genital Mutilation Penal Code European Union Member State
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.de Putter J. (ed.). AIDS & STDs and migrants, ethnic minorities and other mobile groups; the state of the affairs in Europe. AIDS & Mobility, June 1998.Google Scholar
- 2.Toubia N. Female Genital Mutilation: An Overview. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1998.Google Scholar
- 3.Leye E, De Bruyn M, Meuwese S. Proceedings of the FGM expert meeting. Ghent, Belgium, November 1998.Google Scholar
- 4.This is the year for which the figures are applicable. Figures for immigrants were obtained from the National Offices of Statistics from each European member state.Google Scholar
- 5.Carr D. Female Genital Cutting: Findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys Program. Calverton, Md: Macro International; 1997.Google Scholar
- 6.Toubia N. Female Genital Mutilation. A Call for Global Action. 2nd edition. New York: Women, Ink; 1995.Google Scholar
- 8.The expert meeting was organized in Ghent, Belgium in 1998 with funds from the European Commission (Daphne) in collaboration with the Royal Tropical Institute of Amsterdam, Defence for Children International Section the Netherlands and with the Groupement pour l’Abolition des Mutilations Sexuelles (GAMS) Belgium.Google Scholar
- 9.Van Hemeldonck M. Letter from M. Van Hemeldonck, Honorary Member of the European Parliament, December 1998.Google Scholar
- 10.Ólafsdóttir O. Letter dd. 10 March 2000, Council of Europe, DG of Human Rights. DG II, Head of Division Equality between Women and Men.Google Scholar
- 11.Communication from the Commission to the Council on the compendium providing policy guidelines in specific areas or sectors of co-operation to be approved by the Community within the ACP-EC Council of Ministers, 5 July 2000.Google Scholar
- 12.Meuwese S. Woithuis A. Discussion paper: Legal aspects of FGM. Legislation on international and national level in Europe. In: Leye E, De Bruyn M, Meuwese S. Proceedings of the FGM expert meeting. Ghent-Belgium, November 1998.Google Scholar
- 13.Leye E. Workshop report “FGM in Europe: setting a research agenda.” Ghent, 22–23 June 2000.Google Scholar