Examination of epidemiological and experimental studies concerning dietary habits/constituents and cancer risk reveals a substantial body of evidence supporting the hypothesis that diet plays an important role in the occurrence of some types of cancer.1,2,3,4 Research on nutrition and cancer has developed substantially over the past 20-years, initially stimulated by a number of ecological studies which drew attention to the large world-wide variations in cancer incidence, suggesting that these variations could be related to differences in diet and lifestyle among populations.5 The most consistent result so far is that a diet rich in vegetables and fruit is associated with lower cancer risk.6,7,8,9 Various hypotheses have been put forward to explain why consumption of vegetables and fruit is associated with a reduced risk of cancer. Despite the current difficulty of identifying active anti-carcinogens, the accumulation of epidemiological studies lends strength to the observed association between vegetables and fruit intake and lower cancer risk.
KeywordsFruit Intake European Prospective Investigation Dietary Questionnaire Vegetable Fruit Lower Cancer Risk
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 3.Willett, W.C., Stampfer, M.J., Colditz, A.G., Rosner, B.A., and Speizer, F.E. Relation of meat, fat and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. New Engl. J. Med. 323: 1664–1672, 1990.Google Scholar
- 4.Willett, W.C. Diet and Nutrition. In: Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention, 2nd edition (eds Schottenfeld D, Fraumeni JF ), pp. 438–461, WB Saunders, 1996.Google Scholar
- 8.Block, G., Patterson, B., and Subar, A. Fruit, vegetables, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence, Nut. Cancer 18: 1–20, 1992.Google Scholar
- 11.Parkin, D.M., Whelan, S.L., Ferlay, J., Raymond, L., and Young, J. (eds) Cancer Incidence In Five Continents, IARC Scientific Publications, VII (143), Lyon (1997).Google Scholar
- 13.Salvini, S., Parpinel, M., Gnagnarella, P., Maisonneuve, P, and Turrini, A. Banca Dati di Composizione degli Alimenti per Studi Epidemiologici in Italia, IEO, Milan 1998.Google Scholar