To predict the future is a daunting task. At the time of publication of the previous edition of this book I certainly would not have predicted the developments in or the effects of outside forces such as managed care on the field. Perhaps instead of future directions, we should talk of necessary improvements. In general, I think the field will see a greater degree of psychometric sophistication among clinicians and researchers. The increased use of Item Response Theory and Generalizability Theory to evaluate the precision of measurement would be a positive development. Along those lines, the evaluation and conceptualization of validity as a diffractionable entity rather than a monolith will help us to better understand and use the assessment techniques at our disposal. The general conceptualization of a test as a method-construct unit will also aid our understanding.