Continuous Recrystallization and Grain Boundaries in a Superplastic Aluminum Alloy

  • Terry R. McNelley


Superplasticity refers to exceptional tensile ductility for certain polycrystalline materials when they are deformed under appropriate temperature and strain rate conditions. Utilization of superplastic forming has experienced steady growth in recent years due to component weight savings as well as improved performance and reliability for engineering systems incorporating this technology (Grimes, 1988). However, despite such benefits the range of available alloy compositions suitable for use in superplastic forming of components has remained restricted. Improvements in the forming characteristics and superplastic response for a wider range of engineering aluminum alloys than is currently the case would enable great expansion of the utilization of this technology. The micro structural prerequisites that must be met to enable superplasticity are now well established. They include highly refined grains, smaller than 10 μm in size, and grain boundaries capable of sliding while resisting tensile separation (Sherby and Ruano, 1982; Langdon, 1982). The need for a fine grain size reflects the independent contributions of grain boundary sliding (GBS) and slip creep during elevated temperature deformation (Sherby and Ruano, 1982; Langdon, 1982; Sherby and Wadsworth, 1984; Ruano and Sherby, 1988).


Orientation Distribution Function Grain Boundary Slide Continuous Recrystallization Disorientation Angle Cellular Dislocation Structure 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Adams, B.L., 1986, Description of the intercrystalline structure distribution in polycrystalline metals, Metall. Trans. 17A:2199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrett, C.S., 1939, The structure of iron after compression, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs. 135:296.Google Scholar
  3. Barrett, C.S., and Levenson, L.H., 1940, The structure of aluminum after compression, Trans. Am. Inst. Min. Engrs. 137:112.Google Scholar
  4. Bricknell, R.H., and Edington, J.W., 1979, Textures in a superplastic Al-6Cu-0.3Zr alloy, Acta Metall. 27:1303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bunge, HJ., 1982, Texture Analysis in Materials Science, Butterworths, London.Google Scholar
  6. Doherty, R.D., Hughes, D.A., Humphreys, F.J., Jonas, J.J., Juul-Jensen, D., Kassner, M.E., King, W.E., McNelley, T.R., McQueen, HJ., and Rollett, A.D., 1997, Current issues in recrystallization: a review, Mater. Sci. Eng. A. A238:219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Edington, J.W., 1982, Microstructural aspects of superplasticity, Metall. Trans. 13A:703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grimes, R, 1988, Advances and future directions in superplastic materials, in: Advances and Future Directions in Superplastic Materials, NATO-AGARD Lecture Series, No. 168, pp. 8.1–8.16,Google Scholar
  9. Gudmundsson, H., Brooks, D., and Wert, J.A., 1991, Mechanisms of continuous recrystallization in an Al- Zr-Si alloy, Acta Mater. 39:19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Haessner, F., Pospiech, J., and Sztwiertnia, J., 1983, Spatial arrangements of orientations in rolled copper, Mater. Sci. Engng. 57:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hirsch, J., 1990, Correlation of deformation texture and microstructure, Mat. Sci. Tech. 6:1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hirsch, J., and Lücke, K., 1988, Mechanism of deformation and development of rolling textures in polycrystalline f.c.c. metals — II. Simulation and interpretation of experiments on the basis of Taylor- type theories, Acta Metall. 36:2883.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hornbogen, E., 1979, Combined reactions, Metall. Trans. 10:947.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Humphreys, F J., 1977, The nucleation of recrystallization at second phase particles in deformed aluminum, Acta Metall. 25:1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kulkarni, S.S., Starke, E.A., and Kullmann-Wilsdorf, D., 1998, Some observations on deformation banding and correlated microstructures of two aluminum alloys compressed at different temperatures and strain rates, Acta Mater. 46:5283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Langdon, T.G., 1982, The mechanical properties of superplastic materials, Metall. Trans. 13A:689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lee, CS., Duggan, B J., and Smallman, R.E., 1993, A theory of deformation banding in cold rolling, Acta Mater. 41:2265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee, C.S., and Duggan, B J., 1993, Deformation banding and copper-type rolling textures, Acta Mater. 41:2691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lyttle, M.T., and Wert, J.A., 1994, Modelling of continuous recrystallization in aluminum alloys, J. Mat. Sci. 29:3342.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. McNelley, T.R., and McMahon, M.E., 1996, An investigation by interactive electron backscatter pattern analysis of processing and superplasticity in an aluminum-magnesium alloy, Metall. Mater. Trans. 27A:2252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McNelley, T.R., McMahon, M.E., and Hales, S J., An EBSP investigation of alternate microstructures for superplasticity in aluminum-magnesium alloys, 1997, Scripta Mater. 36:369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McNelley, T.R., and McMahon, M.E., 1997, Microtexture and grain boundary evolution during microstructural refinement processes in SUPRAL 2004, Metall. Mater. Trans. 28A:1879.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McNelley, T.R., McMahon, M.E., and Pérez-Prado, M.T., 1999, Grain boundary evolution and continuous recrystallization of a superplastic Al-Cu-Zr alloy, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A. 357:1683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nes, E., 1985, On the mechanisms of superplastic flow in aluminum, in Superplasticité, B. Baudelet and M. Suèry, eds., Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, 71.Google Scholar
  25. Padmanabhan, K.A., and Lücke, K., 1986, An assessment of the role of texture in structurally superplastic flow, Z. Metallkde. 77:765.Google Scholar
  26. Paton, N.E., and Hamilton, C.H., 1978, Method of imparting a fine grain structure to aluminum alloys having precipitating constituents, US Patent 4,092,181.Google Scholar
  27. Pérez-Prado, M.T., McNelley, T.R., Ruano, O.A., and González-Doncel, G., 1998, Microtexture evolution during annealing and superplastic deformation of Al-5%Ca-5%Zn, Metall. Mater. Trans. 29A:485.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Randle, V., 1992, Microtexture Determination and Its Applications, The Institute of Metals, London.Google Scholar
  29. Ruano, O.A., and Sherby, O.D., 1988, On constitutive equations for various diffusion-controlled creep mechanisms, Revue Phys. Appl. 23:625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Sherby, O.D., and Ruano, O.A., 1982, Synthesis and characteristics of superplastic alloys, in Superplastic Forming of Structural Alloys, N.E. Paton and C.H. Hamilton, eds., TMS-AIME, New York, 241.Google Scholar
  31. Sherby, O.D., and Wadsworth, J., 1984, Development and characterization of fine-grain superplastic materials, in: Deformation Processing and Microstructure, G. Krauss, ed., ASM, Materials Park, OH, 355.Google Scholar
  32. Waldman, J., Sulinski, H., and Markus, H., 1974, The effect of ingot processing treatments on the grain size and properties of Al alloy 7075, Metall. Trans. 5:573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Watts, B.M., Stowell, M.J., Baike, B.L., and Owen, D.G.E., 1976, Superplasticity in Al-Cu-Zr alloys. I. Material preparation and properties, Metal Sci. J. 10(No. 6): 189.Google Scholar
  34. Wert, J.A., Paton, N.E., Hamilton, C.H., and Mahoney, M.W., 1981, Grain refinement in 7075 aluminum by thermomechanical processing, Metall. Trans. 12A:1267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Terry R. McNelley
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNaval Postgraduate SchoolMontereyUSA

Personalised recommendations