Frequency Synthesis for Integrated Transceivers

  • Jan-Wim Eikenbroek
  • Sven Mattisson


With the recent increase in radio transceiver integration levels it has become feasible to use more complex frequency synthesizer structures. The use of a fractional-N synthesizer decouples the channel spacing from the choice of synthesizer reference frequency which enables much faster frequency hopping. Static moduli synthesizers have required complex spurious compensation methods, but recently, ΔΣ-dithered moduli fractional-N synthesizers have attracted a lot of attention as no analog spurious-compensation circuits are needed. Design equations for the analog parts of a ΔΣ-based synthesizer are presented together with a discussion on practical implementation aspects.


Phase Detector Reference Frequency Loop Filter Channel Spacing Frequency Synthesizer 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    T. H. Lee. The Design of CMOS Radio-Frequency Integrated Circuits. Cambridge Univerity Press, Cambridge, 1998.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    B. Razavi. RF Microelectronics. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, 1998.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    James A. Crawford. Frequency Synthesizer Design Handbook. Artech House, Boston, 1994.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Donald R. Stephens. Phase-Locked Loops for Wireless Communications - digital and analog implementations. Kluwer, Boston, 1998.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    Michael H. Perrot, Theodore Ltewksbury III, and Charles G. Sodini. A 27-mW CMOS Fractional-N Synthesizer Using Digital Compensation for 2.5-Mb/s GFSK Modulation. IEEE Journal of Solid State Circuits, 32 (12): 2048–2060, December 1997.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    W. F. Egan. Frequency Synthesis by Phase Lock. John Wiley, New York, 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan-Wim Eikenbroek
    • 1
  • Sven Mattisson
    • 2
  1. 1.Ericsson Radio Systems B.V.EmmenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Ericsson Mobile Communications ABLundSweden

Personalised recommendations