Summarizing Multivariate Data: Association between Numerical Variables

  • Kristin E. Voelkl
  • Susan B. Gerber


In this chapter, we illustrate methods for summarizing the relationship or association between two or more variables measured on numerical scales. (Chapter 6 discusses association among categorical variables.) This association can be expressed either graphically or numerically. The graphical technique is the scatter plot, and the numerical index is the correlation coefficient. These methods can be used to answer questions about the relationship between variables such as the following.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kristin E. Voelkl
    • 1
  • Susan B. Gerber
    • 2
  1. 1.Research Institute on AddictionsBuffaloUSA
  2. 2.SUNY at BuffaloBuffaloUSA

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