Long Term Results of Bladder Exstrophy
Classical exstrophy has been recognised for about 2000 years and has been the subject of voluminous surgical literature since the middle of the last century. Contemporary surgery for this condition has developed on the basis of ideas formed nearly a century ago. The posterior pelvic osteotomy and bladder reconstruction used by Trendelenburg in Leipzig at the turn of the century is similar to that used today. He also mentioned that Thiersch had implanted a ‘special mechanical contrivance’ to maintain continence after reconstruction which sounds like a fixed pressure artificial sphincter.1 The photographs in Trendelenburg’s paper show a very acceptable cosmetic result and a young boy able to void with a most impressive stream from very normal looking penis. As so often, it is not the surgical ideas that have changed with time, but the materials and drugs necessary to support those ideas.
KeywordsUltra Sound Uterine Prolapse Female Genitalia Artificial Urinary Sphincter Bladder Exstrophy
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