Surgical Principles in the Primary Closure of Bladder Exstrophy
The functional closure of bladder exstrophy requires initial secure bladder closure followed by epispadias repair and finally bladder neck reconstruction for continence.1 Good functional and cosmetic results are best obtained with closure and follow-up performed by a team dedicated to the management of this very complex anomaly.
KeywordsPrimary Closure Ureteral Stents Bladder Exstrophy Urethral Plate Bladder Closure
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Gearhart J.P., Jeffs R.D.: Exstrophy-epispadias complex and bladder anomalies. In Campbell’s Urology 7th edition. Walsh P.C., Retik A., Stamey T., Vaughan D. eds. pp. 1939–1990.Google Scholar
- 2.Gearhart J.P. Ben-Chaim J., Jeffs R.D., Sanders R.C.: Criteria for the prenatal diagnosis of classic bladder exstrophy. Ob/Gyn., 85 (6) 961–964 1995.Google Scholar
- 3.Mathews R., Jeffs R.D., Taylor S., Gearhart J.P.: Combined bladder closure and epispadias repair in the management of bladder exstrophy. Submitted for publication J Urol., 1997.Google Scholar
- 6.Sponseller P.D., Gearhart J.P., Jeffs R.D.: Anterior innominate osteotomies for failure or late closure of bladder exstrophy. J Urol., 145: 1151 1991.Google Scholar