Advertisement

Reading Influence of Letter Size, Display Quality, and Anticipation

  • C. C. Krischer
  • J. Zihl
  • R. Meissen
Chapter

Abstract

Measurements of reading speed (WPM) serve to study how visually degraded input — as found in computer work — affects the speed of information processing. We observe for each of the different qualities (v) of display we used characteristic WPM-letter size dependencies. Maximal reading speeds (WPMmax) were reached for letters magnified about five times the threshold size. For blurred and dimmed display WPMmax changes characteristically with v and can be described by a simple equation with one constant characterizing the difference in function for blur or dim. By analyzing reading speed in terms of eye jumps (saccades) occuring at intervals of about 250 ms (fixation durations) it is calculated that saccade size is chosen to render well resolvable fixated letters. Based on results of other authors of eye movement recordings and neuro-networking we derive a working hypothesis in which saccadic eye movement (progress in reading) depends on the quality of the retinal images and on cognitive anticipation of images, both being closely related to the structure of the retina and visual cortex.

Keywords

Fixation Duration Retinal Image Reading Speed Threshold Size Display Quality 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aulhorn E, Harms H (1972) Visual Perimetry. In: Handbook of Sensory Physiology Vol VI1/4 Springer, Berlin, pp 102–145Google Scholar
  2. Becker W, Jürgens R (1979) An analysis of the saccadic system by means of double step stimuli. Vision Res 19: 967–983PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Doma H, Hallet PE (1988) Dependence of saccadic eye-movements on stimulus luminance, and an effect of task. Vision Res 28: 915–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Legge GE, Pelli DG, Rubin GS, Schleske MM (1985) Psychophysics of reading I. Normal vision. Vision Res 25: 239–52PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. McConkie GW (1979) On the role and control of eye movement in reading. In: Kolers PA Wrolstadt ME (eds) Processing of visual language. Plenum Press, London, pp 37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Stark LW, Choi YS (1996) Experimental Metaphysics: The scanpath as an epistemological mechanism. In: Zangemeister, Stiehl, Freksa (eds.) Visual attention and cognition. Elsevier Science B.V. pp 3–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Taylor SE (1965) Eye movements in reading: facts and fallacies. Am Ed Res J 2 187–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Tononi G, Sporns O, Edelman GM (1996) A complexity measure for selective matching of signals by the brain. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 93: 3422–3427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Van Die GC, Collewijn H (1986) Control of human optokinetic nystagmus by the central and peripheral retina: effects of partial visual field masking, scotopic vision and central retinal scotomata. Brain Res 383: 185–94PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Von Hoist E, Mittelstaedt H (1954) Das ReafTerenzprinzip. Naturwissenschaften 37: 464–476Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. C. Krischer
    • 1
  • J. Zihl
    • 2
  • R. Meissen
    • 1
  1. 1.Forschungszentrum JülichThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Universität und Max-Planck Institut für PsychiatrieMünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations