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Static Vestibulo-Ocular Brainstem Syndromes

Three-Dimensional Modeling and Stimulation
  • S. Glasauer
  • A. Weiß
  • M. Dieterich
  • Th. Brandt
Chapter

Abstract

Vestibular brainstem syndromes can be classified clinically according to the three main planes of action (Brandt and Dieterich 1994) of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR): horizontal (yaw), frontal (roll), and sagittal (pitch). Ocular signs of a tone imbalance of the VOR in the roll plane include skew deviation, skew torsion, and torsional nystagmus; in the pitch plane, they are conjugate vertical deviation and downbeat or upbeat nystagmus. Since the neuronal circuit of the VOR operates in both co-ordinate systems of the sensors (otoliths and semicircular canals) and of the actors (ocular muscles), the same upward neuronal pathways have to be used for ocular movements in the roll and pitch planes (Brandt and Dieterich 1995). It is only the different activation patterns of these pathways which determine the plane of action (roll or pitch).

Keywords

Semicircular Canal Vestibular Nucleus Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus Head Pitch Ocular Torsion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • S. Glasauer
    • 1
  • A. Weiß
    • 1
  • M. Dieterich
    • 1
  • Th. Brandt
    • 1
  1. 1.Neurologische Universitätsklinik und Zentrum für SensomotorikMünchenGermany

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