Advertisement

Colon cancer: the potential involvement of the normal microflora

  • John Birkbeck
Chapter

Abstract

Adenocarcinoma of the colon is one of the commonest malignancies seen in Western countries, often vying for first place with bronchial carcinoma in the league tables. The human colon is a unique piece of anatomy, in that it contains vast quantities of living and actively metabolizing microorganisms, which play a crucial role in the health of the colonic mucosa from which adenocarcinomas are derived. Hence it is reasonable to enquire whether the nature of the activities of this microflora may influence the risk of malignancy in the colorectal area. It is further relevant to ask to what extent dietary factors, which may influence the risk of colon cancer, may act through, or be modulated by, the microflora.

Keywords

Colon Cancer Bile Acid Dietary Fibre Wheat Bran Resistant Starch 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adlercreutz, H. (1995) Phytoestrogens: epidemiology and a possible role in cancer protection. Environmental Health Perspectives, 103, 103–112.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. AICR (1997) Food, Nutrition and the Prevention of Cancer: A Global Perspective, American Institute for Cancer Research, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  3. Alberts, D. S., Ritenbaugh, C., Story, J. A. et al. (1996) Randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study of effect of wheat bran fiber and calcium on fecal bile acids in patients with resected adenomatous colon polyps. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 88, 81–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alder, R. J., McKeown-Eyssen, G. and Bright-See, E. (1993) Randomised trial of the effect of calcium supplementation on fecal risk factors for colorectal cancer. American Journal of Epidemiology, 138, 804–814.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Alles, M. S., Katan, M. B., Salemans, J. M. et al. (1997) Bacterial fermentation of fructooligosaccharides and resistant starch in patients with an ileal pouch-anal anastomosis. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 1286–1292.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Allison, C. (1995) Nitrogen Metabolism of the Human Large Intestinal Bacteria, PhD thesis quoted in Macfarlane, S. and Macfarlane, G. T. Proteolysis and amino-acid fermentation, in Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, (eds G. R. Gibson and G. T. Macfarlane), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  7. Antalis, T. M. and Reeder, J. A. (1995) Butyrate regulates gene expression of the plasminogen activating system in colon cancer cells. International Journal of Cancer, 62, 619–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Atwater, W. O. and Benedict, F. G. (1899) Experiments on the metabolism and energy in the human body, Bulletin 69, US Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  9. Axelsen, M., Kirk, D. N., Cooley, G. et al. (1982) The identification of the weak oestrogen equol (7-hydroxyphenylchroman) in human urine. Biochemical Journal, 201, 353–357.Google Scholar
  10. Babbs, C. F. (1990) Free radicals and the etiology of colon cancer. Free Radicals in Biology and Medicine, 8, 191–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Baghurst, P.A., Baghurst, K. I. and Record, S. J. (1996) Dietary fibre, non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch: a review. Food in Australia, 48, S3 - S35.Google Scholar
  12. Bancroft, T., McNally, R. A. and Phillipson, A. T. (1944) Absorption of volatile fatty acids from the alimentary tract of the sheep and other animals. Journal of Experimental Biology, 20, 120–129.Google Scholar
  13. Bartram, H. P., Scheppach, W., Englert, S. et al. (1995) Effects of deoxycholic acid and butyrate on mucosal prostaglandin E2 release and cell proliferation in the human sigmoid colon. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition, 19, 182–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bartram, H. P., Gostner, A., Kelber, E. et al. (1996) Effects of fish oil on fecal bacterial enzymes and steroid excretion in healthy volunteers: implications for colon cancer prevention. Nutrition and Cancer, 25, 71–78.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bayerdorffer, R, Mannes, G. A., Ochsenkuhn, T. et al. (1995) Unconjugated secondary bile acids in the serum of patients with colorectal adenomas. Gut, 36, 268–273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Bingham, S. (1997) Meat, starch and non-starch polysaccharides, are epidemiological and experimental findings consistent with acquired genetic alterations in sporadic colorectal cancer? Cancer Letters, 114, 25–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Block, J. B., Dietrich, M. F., Leake, R. et al. (1990) Fecapentaene excretion: aspects of excretion in newborn infants, children, and adult normal subjects and in adults maintained on total parenteral nutrition. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51, 398–404.Google Scholar
  18. Bonjour, J. P. (1991) Biotin, in Handbook of Vitamins, 2nd edn, (ed. L. J. Machlin ), Marcel Dekker, New York, pp. 393–427.Google Scholar
  19. Bostick, R. M., Potter, J. D., Lushi, L. H. et al. (1994) Sugar, meat and fat intake and non-dietary risk factors for colon cancer incidence in Iowa women (United States). Cancer Causes and Control, 5, 38–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bouhnik, Y., Flourie, B., Riottot, M. et al. (1996) Effects of fructo-oligosaccharides ingestion on fecal bifidobacteria and selected metabolic indexes of colon carcinogenesis in healthy humans. Nutrition and Cancer, 26, 21–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Brunton, V. G., Ozanne, B. W., Paraskeva, C. and Frame, M. C. (1997) A role for epidermal growth factor receptor, c-Src and focal adhesion kinase in an in vitro model for the progression of colon cancer. Oncogene, 14, 283–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bugaut, M. and Bentéjac, M. (1993) Biological effects of short-chain fatty acids in nonruminant mammals. Annual Review of Nutrition, 13, 217–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Burkitt, D. P. (1971) Epidemiology of cancer of the colon and rectum. Cancer, 62, 1713–1724.Google Scholar
  24. Burkitt, D. P. (1973) Epidemiology of large bowel disease: the role of fibre. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of the UK, 32, 145–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Burkitt, D. P. and Trowell, H. C. (1975) Refined Carbohydrate Foods and Disease. Some Implications of Dietary Fibre, Academic Press, London.Google Scholar
  26. Burlingame, B. A., Milligan, G. C., Apamerika, D. E. and Arthur, J. M. (1993) The Concise New Zealand Food Composition Tables, Crop & Food, Palmerston North.Google Scholar
  27. Byers, T. (1995) Dietary fiber and colon cancer risk: the epidemiological evidence, in Dietary Fiber in Health and Disease, (eds D. Kritchevsky and D. Bonfield ), Eagan Press, Minnesota, pp. 183–190.Google Scholar
  28. Calloway, D. H. and Margen, S. (1971) Variation in endogenous nitrogen excretion and dietary nitrogen utilisation as determinants of human protein requirements. Journal of Nutrition, 101, 205–216.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Campbell, J. M., Fahey, G. C. and Wolf, B. W. (1997) Selected indigestible oligosaccharides affect large bowel mass, cecal and fecal short-chain fatty acids, pH and microflora in rats. Journal of Nutrition, 127, 130–136.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Cassidy, A., Bingham, S. and Setchell, K. D. R. (1994) Biological effect of a diet of soy protein rich in isoflavones on the menstrual cycle of premenopausal women. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60, 333–340.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Cherbonnel-Lasserre, C. L., Linares-Cruz, G., Rigaut, J. P. et al. (1997) Strong decrease in biotin content may correlate with metabolic alterations in colorectal carcinoma. International Journal of Cancer, 72, 768–775.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Christi, S. U., Bartram, H. P., Ruckert, A. et al. (1995) Influence of starch fermentation on bile acid metabolism by colonic bacteria. Nutrition and Cancer, 24, 67–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Christi, S. U., Bartram, H. P., Paul, A. et al. (1997) Bile acid metabolism by colonic bacteria in continuous culture: effects of starch and pH. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 41, 45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Cobiac, L. (1994) Lactose: a review of intakes and of importance to health of Australians and New Zealanders. Food in Australia, 46, S3 - S27.Google Scholar
  35. Coward, L., Barnes, S., Setchell, K. D. R. and Barnes, S. (1993) Genistein and Diadzein and their ca-glucoside conjugates: antitumour isoflavones in soybean foods from American and Asian diets. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41, 1961–1967.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Cox, B. D. and Whichelow, M. J. (1997) Frequent consumption of red meat is not risk factor for cancer. Lancet, 315, 10–18.Google Scholar
  37. Cummings, J. H., Pomare, E. W., Branch, W. J. et al. (1987) Short chain fatty acids in human large intestine, portal, hepatic and venous blood. Gut, 28, 1221–1227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Cummings, J. H., Banwell, J. G., Segal, I. et al. (1990) The amount and composition of large bowel contents in man. Gastroenterology, 98, A408.Google Scholar
  39. Cummings, J. M. (1988) New Scientist,8 August.Google Scholar
  40. Dang, J., Wang, Y. and Doe, W. F. (1995) Sodium butyrate inhibits expression of urokinase and its receptor mRNAs at both transcription and post-transcription levels in colon cancer cells. FEBS Letters, 259, 147–150.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. DeKok, T. M., van Faassen, A., Bausch-Goldbohm, R. A. et al. (1992) Fecapentaene excretion and fecal mutagenicity in relation to nutrient intake and fecal parameters in humans on omnivorous and vegetarian diets. Cancer Letters, 62, 11–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Deschner, E. E., Ruperto, J., Wong, G. and Newmark, H. L. (1991) Quercetin and rutin as inhibitors of azoxymethanol-induced colonic neoplasia. Carcinogenesis, 12, 1193–1196.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Djouzi, Z. and Andrieuw, C. (1997) Compared effects on three oligosaccharides in metabolism of intestinal microflora in rats inoculated with a human faecal flora. British Journal of Nutrition, 78, 313–324.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Dragsted, L. O., Strube, M. and Larsen, J. C. (1993) Cancer-protective factors in fruit and vegetables; biochemical and biological background. Pharmacology and Toxicology, 72 (Suppl. 1), 116–135.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Eisenbrand, G., Spiegelhalder, B. and Pressman, R. (1981) Analysis of human biological specimens for nitrosamine contents, in Gastrointestinal Cancer: Endogenous Factors, Banbury Report 7, (eds W. P. Bruce, P. Correa, M. Lipkin et al.), Cold Spring Harbor Symposia, New York.Google Scholar
  46. Englyst, H. N., Wiggins, H. S. and Cummings, J. H. (1982) Determination of nonstarch polysaccharides in plant foods by gas-liquid chromatography of constituent sugars as alditol acetates. Analyst, 107, 307–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Eyssen, H. and Caenepeel, P. (1988) Metabolism of fats, bile acids and steroids, in Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, (ed. I. R. Rowland ), Academic Press, London, p. 263.Google Scholar
  48. FASEB (1987) Ad Hoc Panel on Dietary Fiber, in Physiological Effects and Health Consequences of Dietary Fiber, (ed. S. M. Pilch ), FASEB, Bethesda, MD.Google Scholar
  49. Finegold, S. M., Sutter, V. L. and Mathesen, G. E. (1983) Normal indigenous intestinal flora, in Human Intestinal Microflora in Health and Disease, (ed. D. J. Hentges ), Academic Press, London, p. 13.Google Scholar
  50. Franke, A. A. and Custer, L. J. (1996) Diadzein and genistein concentrations in human milk after soy consumption. Clinical Chemistry, 42, 955–964.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Garland, C., Shekelle, R. E., Barrett-Connor, E. et al. (1985) Dietary vitamin D and calcium and risk of colorectal cancer: a 19-year prospective study in men. Lancet, I, 307–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Gibson, G. R. and Macfarlane, G. T. (1995) Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  53. Gibson, G. R. and Wang, X. (1994) Enrichment of bifidobacteria from human gut contents by oligofructose using continuous culture. FEMS Microbiology Letters, 118, 121–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gibson, G. R., Beatty, E. E. R., Wang, X. and Cummings, J. H. (1995) Selective stimulation of bifidobacteria in the human colon by oligofructose and inulin. Gastroenterology, 108, 975–982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Gibson, G. R., Willems, A., Reading, S. and Collins, M. D. (1996) Fermentation of non-digestible oligosaccharides by human colonic bacteria. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of the UK, 55, 899–912.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Gibson, P. R., Moeller, I., Kagelari, O. and Folino, M. (1990) Contrasting effects of butyrate on the differentiation of normal and neoplastic colonic epithelial cells in vitro. Gastroenterology, 98, A495.Google Scholar
  57. Giovannucci, E. and Goldin, B. (1997) The role of fat, fatty acids, and total energy intake in the etiology of human colon cancer. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66, 1564S - 1571S.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Giovannucci, E., Rimm, E. B., Stampfer, M. J. et al. (1994) Intake of fat, meat and fiber in relation to risk of colon cancer in men. Cancer Reviews, 54, 2390–2397.Google Scholar
  59. Goldbohm, R. A., van den Brandt, P. A., van ‘t Veer, P. et al. (1994) A prospective cohort study on the relation between meat consumption and the risk of colon cancer. Cancer Research, 54, 718–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Govers, M. J., Termont, D. S., Lapre, J. A. et al. (1996) Calcium in milk products precipitates intestinal fatty acids and secondary bile acids and thus inhibits colonic cytotoxicity in humans. Cancer Research, 56, 3270–3275.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Green, L. C., Wagner, D. A., Ruiz, K. et al. (1981) Nitrate biosynthesis in man. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, 78, 7764–7768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Groenen-van Dooren, M. M., Ronden, J. E., Soute, B. A. and Vermeer, C. (1995) Bioavailability of phylloquinone and menaquinones after oral and colorectal administration in vitamin K-deficient rats. Biochemistry and Pharmacology, 50, 797–801.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Hague, A., Manning, A. M., Hanlon, K. A. et al. (1993) Sodium butyrate induces apoptosis in human colonic tumour cell lines in a p-53-independent pathway: implications for the possible role of dietary fibre in the prevention of large-bowel cancer. International Journal of Cancer, 55, 498–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Hassig, C. A., Tong, J. K. and Schreiber, S. L. (1997) Fiber-derived butyrate and the prevention of colon cancer. Chemical Biology, 4, 783–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Hata, Y., Yamamoto, M. and Nakajima, K. (1991) Effects of soybean oligosaccharides on human digestive organs: estimation of fifty percent effective dose and maximum non-effective dose based on diarrhea. Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition, 10, 135–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Heerdt, B. G., Houston, M. A. and Augenlicht, L. H. (1997) Short-chain fatty acid-initiated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of colonic epithelial cells is linked to mitochondrial function. Cell Growth and Differentiation, 8, 523–532.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Hennigan, T. W., Sian, M., Matthews, J. and Allen-Mersh, T. G. (1995) Protective role of lactulose in intestinal carcinogenesis. Surgical Oncology, 4, 31–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Higginson, J. and Oettle, A. G. (1960) Cancer incidence in the Bantu and Cape coloured races in South Africa: a report of a cancer survey in the Transvaal. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 24, 589–671.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Hill, M. J. (1974) Bacteria and the etiology of colonic cancer. Cancer, 345, 815–818.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Hipsley, E. H. (1953) ‘Dietary fibre’ and pregnancy toxaemia. British Medical Journal, II, 420–422.Google Scholar
  71. Holland, B., Welch, A. A., Unwin, I. D. et al. (1991) The Composition of Foods, Royal Society of Chemistry, Cambridge.Google Scholar
  72. Hoskins, L. C. (1992) Mucin degradation in the human gastrointestinal tract and its significance to enteric microbial ecology. European Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 5, 205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Hoskins, L. C., Agustines, M., McKee, W. B. et al. (1985) Mucin degradation in human colon ecosystems: Isolation and properties of fecal strains that degrade ABH blood group antigens and oligosaccharides from mucin glycoproteins. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 75, 944–953.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Hoverstad, T. (1986) Studies of short-chain fatty acid absorption in man. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 21, 257–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Howe, G. R., Aronson, K. J., Benito, E. et al. (1997) The relationship between dietary fat intake and risk of colorectal cancer: evidence from the combined analysis of 13 case-control studies. Cancer Causes and Control, 8, 215–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Hu, J., Liu, Y., Yu, Y. et al. (1991) Diet and cancer, of the colon and rectum: a case-control study in China. International Journal of Epidemiology, 20, 362–367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Hudson, M. J. and Marsh, P. D. (1995) Carbohydrate metabolism in the colon, in Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, (eds G. R. Gibson and G. T. MacFarlane ), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, pp. 61–73.Google Scholar
  78. Hylla, S., Gostner, A., Dusel, G. et al. (1998) Effects of resistant starch on the colon in healthy volunteers: possible implications for cancer prevention. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 67, 136–142.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Jacob, R. A., Kelley, D. S., Pianalto, F. S. et al. (1991) Immunocompetence and oxidant defense during ascorbate depletion of healthy men. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 54, 13025–1309S.Google Scholar
  80. Jass, J. R. (1985) Diet, butyric acid and differentiation of gastrointestinal tract tumours. Medical Hypotheses, 18, 113–118.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Joannou, G. E., Kelly, G. E., Reeder, A. Y. et al. (1995) A urinary profile study of dietary phytoestrogens: the identification and mode of metabolism of new isoflavonoids. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 54, 167–184.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Johnson, A. O., Semenya, J. G., Buchowski, M. S. et al. (1993) Correlation of lactose maldigestion, lactose intolerance and milk intolerance. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57, 389–401.Google Scholar
  83. Kingston, D. G., van Tassell, R. L. and Wilkins, T. D. (1990) The fecapentaenes, potent mutagens from human feces. Chemistry Research and Toxicology, 3, 391–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Kirkman, L. M., Lampe, J. W., Campbell, D. R. et al. (1995) Urinary lignan and isoflavanoid excretion in men and women consuming vegetable and soy diets. Nutrition and Cancer, 24, 1–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Klurfeld, D. M. and Bull, A. W. (1997) Fatty acids and colon cancer in experimental models. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 1530S - 1538S.Google Scholar
  86. Koo, M. and Rao, A. V. (1991) Long-term effect of bifidobacteria and neosugar on precursor lesions of colonic cancer in CF1 mice. Nutrition and Cancer, 16, 249–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Kritchevsky, D. (1995) Epidemiology of fibre, resistant starch and colorectal cancer. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 4, 345–352.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Lamartiniere, C. A., Moore, J. B., Holland, M. and Barnes, S. (1995) Neonatal genistein chemoprevents mammary cancer. Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, 208, 120–123.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. McBain, A. J. and Macfarlane, G. T. (1997) Investigations of bifidobacterial ecology and oligosaccharide metabolism in a three-stage compound continuous culture system. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (Supplement), 222, 32–40.Google Scholar
  90. McBain, J. A., Eastman, A., Nobel, C. S. and Mueller, G. C. (1997) Apoptotic death in adenocarcinoma cell lines induced by butyrate and other histone deacetylase inhibitors. Biochemistry and Pharmacology, 53, 1357–1368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Macfarlane, G. T., Gibson, S. A. W. and Gibson, G. R. (1992) Proteolytic activities of the fragilis group of Bacteroides species, in Medical and Environmental Aspects to Anaerobes, (eds B. I. Duerden, J. S. Brazier, S. V. Seddon and W. G. Wade ), Wrightson, Petersfield, p. 159.Google Scholar
  92. Macfarlane, S. and Macfarlane, G. T. (1995) Proteolysis and ammo acid fermentation, in Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, (eds G. R. Gibson and G. T. Macfarlane ), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  93. McMichael, A. J. and Potter, J. D. (1985) Host factors in carcinogenesis: certain bile-acid metabolic profiles that selectively increase the risk of proximal colon cancer. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 75, 185–191.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Magee, P. N. (ed.) (1981) The possible role of nitrosamines in human cancer. Banbury Report No 12, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York.Google Scholar
  95. Massey, R. C., Key, P. E., Mallett, A. K. and Rowland, I. R. (1988) An investigation of the endogenous formation of apparent total N-nitroso compounds in conventional microflora and germ-free rats. Food Chemistry and Toxicology, 26, 595–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mastromarino, A., Reddy, B. S. and Wynder, E. L. (1976) Metabolic epidemiology of colon cancer: enzymatic activity of fecal flora. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 29, 1455–1460.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Messina, M., Persky, V., Setchell, K. D. R. and Barnes, S. (1994) Soy intake and cancer risk: a review of the in vitro and in vivo data. Nutrition and Cancer, 21, 113–131.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Molis, C., Flourie, B., Quarne, F. et al. (1996) Digestion, excretion and energy value of fructooligosaccharides in healthy humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 64, 324–328.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Muir, J. G. and O’Dea, K. (1992) Measurement of resistant starch: factors affecting the amount of starch escaping digestion in vitro. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56, 123–127.Google Scholar
  100. Muir, J. G., Young, G. P., O’Dea, K. et al. (1994) Resistant starch–the neglected ‘dietary fibre’? Implications for health. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society of Australia, 18, 23–32.Google Scholar
  101. Nagao, M. and Sugimura, T. (1993) Carcinogenic factors in food with relevance to colon cancer development. Mutation Research, 290, 43–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Nagengast, F. M., Grubben, M. J. and vanMunster, P. (1995) Role of bile acids in colorectal carcinogenesis. European Journal of Cancer, 31A, 1067–1070.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Nakagaki, M. and Nakayama, F. (1982) Effect of female sex hormones on lithogenicity of bile. Japanese Journal of Surgery, 12, 13–18.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Nakaki, M., Takikawa, H. and Yamanaka, M. (1997) Targeting immunotherapy using the avidin-biotin system for a human colon adenocarcinoma in vitro. Journal of International Medical Research, 25, 14–23.Google Scholar
  105. Nakano, K., Mizuno, T., Sowa, Y. et al. (1997) Butyrate activates the WAF1/Cip1 gene promoter through Spi sites in a p-53-negative human colon cancer cell line. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 272, 22199–22206.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Narisawa, T., Magadia, N. E., Weisburger, J. H. and Wynder, E. L. (1974) Promoting effects of bile acids on colon carcinogenesis after intrarectal instillation of N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine in rats. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 53, 1093–1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. NAS/NRC (1981) The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite and N-nitroso Compounds, National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  108. Newmark, H. L., Wargovich, M. J. and Bruce, W. R. (1984) Colon cancer and dietary fat, phosphate and calcium: a hypothesis. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 72, 1323–1325.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. NRC (1982) Report of the Committee on Diet, Nutrition and Cancer, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  110. Owen, R. W. (1997) Faecal steroids and colorectal carcinogenesis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology (Supplement), 222, 76–82.Google Scholar
  111. Peters, J. H., Riccio, E. S., Stewart, K. R. and Reist, E. J. (1988) Mutagenic activities of fecapentaene derivatives in the Ames/Salmonella test system. Cancer Letters, 39, 287–296.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Pierre, F., Perrin, P., Champ, M. et al. (1997) Short-chain fructo-oligosaccharides reduce the occurrence of colon tumours and develop gut-associated lymphoid tissue in Mm mice. Cancer Research, 57, 225–228.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. Pongracz, J., Clark, P., Neoptolemos, J. P. and Lord, J. M. (1995) Expression of protein kinase C isoenzymes in colorectal cancer tissue and their differential activation by different bile acids. International Journal of Cancer, 61, 35–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Povey, A. C., Plummer, S. M., Grafstrom, R. C. and Harris, C. C. (1990) Genotoxic mechanisms of fecapentaene-12 in human cells. Progress in Clinical Biology Research, 347, 155–166.Google Scholar
  115. Rackis, J. J. (1981) Flatulence caused by soya and its control through processing. Journal of the Analytical Chemistry Society, 58, 503–509.Google Scholar
  116. Rackis, J. J., Honig, D. H., Sessa, D. J. and Steggerda, F. R. (1970a) Flavor and flatulence factors in soybean protein products. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 18, 977–982.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Rackis, J. J., Sessa, D. J., Steggerda, F. R. et al. (1970b) Soybean factors related to gas production by intestinal bacteria. Journal of Food Science, 35, 634–639.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Roberfroid, M. B. (1997) Health benefits of non-digestible oligosaccharides. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, 427, 211–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Rose, D. P. (1993) Diet, hormones and cancer. Annual Review of Public Health, 14, 1–17.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Rowland, I. R. (1995) Toxicology of the colon: role of the intestinal microflora, in Human Colonic Bacteria: Role in Nutrition, Physiology and Pathology, (eds G. R. Gibson and G. T. Macfarlane ), CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.Google Scholar
  121. Rowland, I. R., Mallett, A. K. and Wise, A. (1985) The effect of diet on the mammalian gut flora and its metabolic activities. Critical Review of Toxicology, 16, 31–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Rowland, I. R., Granli, T., Bockman, O. C. et al. (1991) Endogenous N-nitrosation in man assessed by measurement of apparent total N-nitroso compounds in faeces. Carcinogenesis, 12, 1395–1401.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Santodonato, J., Howard, B. and Basu, D. (1981) Health and ecological assessment of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons. Journal of Environmental Pathology and Toxicology, 5, 1–364.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. Savage, D. C. (1986) Gastrointestinal microflora in mammalian nutrition. Annual Review of Nutrition, 6, 155–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Scheppach, W., Bartram, H. P. and Richter, F. (1995) Role of short-chain fatty acids in the prevention of colorectal cancer. European Journal of Cancer, 31A, 1077–1080.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Schiffman, M. H., van Tassell, R. L., Robinson, A. et al. (1989) Case-control study of colorectal cancer and fecapentaene excretion. Cancer Research, 49, 1322–1326.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. Schwartz, B., Lamprecht, S. A., Polak-Charcon, S. et al. (1995) Induction of the differentiated phenotype in human colon cancer cell is associated with the attenuation of subcellular tyrosine phosphorylation. Oncology Research, 7, 277–287.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. Scrimshaw, N. S. and Murray, E. B. (1988) Prevalence of lactose malabsorption. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 48, 1086–1098.Google Scholar
  129. Setchell, K. D. R. (1985) Naturally occurring nonsteroidal estrogens of dietary origin, in Estrogens in the Environment: Influence on Development, (ed. J. McLachlan ), Elsevier, New York, pp. 73–106.Google Scholar
  130. Setchell, K. D. R. and Adlercreutz, H. (1988) Mammalian lignans and phytoestrogens: metabolism and biological roles in health and disease, in The Role of Gut Microflore in Toxicity and Cancer, (ed. I. A. Rowland ), Academic Press, New York, pp. 315–345.Google Scholar
  131. Setchell, K. D. R., Zimmer-Nechemias, L., Cai, J. and Heubi, J. E. (1997) Exposure of infants to phytoestrogens from soy-based formula. Lancet, 350, 23–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Shulz, T. D. and Howie, B. J. (1986) In vitro binding of steroid hormones by natural and purified fibres. Nutrition and Cancer, 8, 141–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Southgate, D. A. T. and Durnin, J. V. G. A. (1970) Calorie conversion factors. An experimental reassessment of the factors used in the calculation of the energy value of human diets. British Journal of Nutrition, 24, 517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Steinmetz, K. A. and Potter, J. D. (1994) Egg consumption and cancer of the colon and rectum. European Journal of Cancer Prevention, 3, 237–245.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Stemmermann, G. N., Nomura, A. M. and Heilbrun, L. K. (1984) Dietary fat and the risk of colorectal cancer. Cancer Research, 44, 4633–4637.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. Sterchi, E. E., Mills, P. R., Fransen, J. A. M. et al. (1990) Biogenesis of intestinal lactase phlorizin hydrolase in adults with lactose intolerance. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 86, 1329–1337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Stone-Dorshow, T. and Levitt, M. D. (1987) Gaseous response to ingestion of a poorly absorbed fructo-oligosaccharide sweetener. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 46, 61–65.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. Suttie, J. W. (1995) The importance of menaquinones in human nutrition. Annual Review of Nutrition, 15, 399–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Taylor, P. R., Schiffman, M. H., Jones, D. Y. et al. (1988) Relation of changes in amount and type of dietary fat to fecapentaenes in premenopausal women. Mutation Research, 206, 3–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Tocchi, A., Basso, L., Costa, G. et al. (1996) Is there a causal connection between bile acids and colorectal cancer? Surgery Today, 26, 101–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Trowell, H. (1972) Crude fibre, dietary fibre, and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis, 16, 138–140.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Trowell, H. (1975) Refined carbohydrate: foods and fibre, in Refined Carbohydrate Foods and Disease, (eds D. P. Burkitt and H. Trowell ), Academic Press, London, pp. 25–41.Google Scholar
  143. Meer, R., Lapre, J. A., Govers, M. J. and Kleibeuker, J. H. (1997) Mechanisms of the intestinal effects of dietary fats and milk products on colon carcinogenesis. Cancer Letters, 114, 75–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tassell, R. L., Kingston, D. G. and Wilkins, T. D. (1990) Metabolism of dietary genotoxins by the human colonic microflora: the fecapentaenes and heterocyclic amines. Mutation Research, 238, 209–221.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tassell, R. L., Piccariello, T., Kingston, D. G. and Wilkins, T. D. (1989) The precursors of fecapentaenes: purification and properties of a novel plasmalo-gen. Lipids, 24, 454–459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Velasquez, C. C., Seta, R. W., Choi, J. et al. (1997) Butyrate inhibits deoxycholateindúced increase in colonic mucosal DNA and protein synthesis in vivo. Diseases of the Colon and Rectum, 40, 1368–1375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Venitt, S. and Bosworth, D. (1988) The bacterial mutagenicity of synthetic all-trans fecapentaene-12 changes when assayed under anaerobic conditions. Mutagenesis, 3, 169–173.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Visek, W. J. (1972) Effect of urea hydrolysis on cell life-span and metabolism. Federation Proceedings, 31, 1178–1193.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. Visek, W. J. (1978) Diet and cell growth modulation by ammonia. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 31, S216 - S220.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. Wagner, D. A. and Tannenbaum, S. R. (1985) In-vivo formation of N-nitroso compounds. Food Technology, 39, 89–90.Google Scholar
  151. Walker, A. R. P. and Arvidsson, U. B. (1954) Fat intake, serum cholesterol concentration and atherosclerosis in the South African Bantu. Journal of Clinical Investigation, 33, 1358–1365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Walker, R. (1990) Nitrates, nitrites and N-nitroso compounds: a review of the occurrence in food and diet and the toxicological implications. Food Additives and Contaminants, 7, 717–768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Wang, X. and Gibson, G. R. (1993) Effects of the in vitro fermentation of oligofructose and inulin by bacteria growing in the human large intestine. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 75, 373–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Warwick, G. P. (1971) Effect of the cell cycle on carcinogenesis. Federation Proceedings, 30, 1760–1765.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. Watanabe, Y., Tada, M., Kawamoto, K. et al. (1984) A case-control study of cancer of the rectum and the colon. Nippon Shok Gakkai Zasshi, 81, 185–193.Google Scholar
  156. Weinberg, E. D. (1994) Association of iron with colorectal cancer. Biometals, 7, 211–216.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Weisburger, J. H., Jones, R. C., Wang, C. X. et al. (1990) Carcinogenicity tests of fecapentaene-12 in mice and rats. Cancer Letters, 49, 89–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Weisburger, J. H., Rivenson, A., Reinhardt, J. et al. (1994) Genotoxicity and carcinogenicity in rats and mice of 2-amino-3,6-dihydro-3-methyl-7H-imidazolo[4,5-f] quinolin-7-one: an intestinal bacterial metabolite of 2-amino-3methyl-3H-imidazo[4,5-f] quinoline. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 86, 25–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Willett, W. C., Staempfer, M. I., Colditz, G. A. et al. (1990) Relation of meat, fat and fiber intake to the risk of colon cancer in a prospective study among women. New England Journal of Medicine, 323, 1664–1672.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Williams, N. N., Brannigan, A., Fitzpatrick, J. M. and O’Connell, P. R. (1992) Glutamine and butyric acid metabolism measurement in biopsy specimens (ex vivo): a method of assessing treatment of inflammatory bowel conditions. Gastroenterology, 102, A713.Google Scholar
  161. Williams, R. D. and Olmstedt, W. (1935) A biochemical method for determining indigestible residue (crude fibre) in faeces: lignin, cellulose and non-water soluble hemicelluloses. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 108, 653–666.Google Scholar
  162. Wilson, R. P., Muhrer, M. E. and Bloomfield, R. A. (1968) Comparative ammonia toxicity. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 25, 295–301.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wolever, T. M. S., Spadafora, P. and Eshuis, H. (1991) Interaction between colonic acetate and propionate in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 53, 681–687.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. Wrong, O. M. (1988) Bacterial metabolism of protein and endogenous nitrogen compounds, in Role of the Gut Flora in Toxicity and Cancer, (ed. I. R. Rowland ), Academic Press, London, p. 227.Google Scholar
  165. Yazawa, K., Imai, K. and Tamura, Z. (1978) Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides specifically utilisable by bifidobacteria. Chemistry and Pharmacology Bulletin (Tokyo), 26, 3306–3311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Zarkovic, M., Qin, X., Nakatsuru, Y. et al. (1993) Tumor promotion by fecapen- taene-12 in a rat colon carcinogenesis model. Carcinogenesis, 14, 1261–1264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Zoran, D. L., Turner, N. D., Taddeo, S. S. et al. (1997) Wheat bran diet reduces tumor incidence in a rat model of colon cancer independent of effects on distal luminal butyrate concentrations. Journal of Nutrition, 127, 2217–2225.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Birkbeck

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations