The mud volcanoes of the onshore and offshore regions of Azerbaijan are noted for their oil and gas accumulations on the flanks and crests of the volcanoes, making them commercially attractive as a major hydrocarbon province. Equally, however, the same mud volcanoes are noted for a variety of hazards which occur sporadically. These hazards range from sedimentary induced earthquakes, flame eruptions (to a height of up to 1.2 km), mud flows, explosive overpressure release, hydrate decomposition, and breccia ejection. Earlier in this volume estimates have been given for safety distances away from mud volcanoes for flame eruptions, for hydrate decomposition effects, for overpressure considerations, and for mud flow hazards in both aeolian and submarine conditions. In addition, earthquake hazard estimates based on the historical record have already been considered earlier.
KeywordsRock Mass Horizontal Distance Rock Fragment Turbulent Viscosity Impact Speed
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