Mud Volcano Eruptions and Flame Hazards
From almost prehistoric times, records are available of eruptions of mud volcanoes associated with gas ignition, high flame, ejection of masses of mud, thrown masses of rock (sometimes of significant size), explosions and ground-motion trembles. In old manuscripts one can find descriptions of such natural phenomena. From the last century more or less periodic observations have been recorded in journals and guidebooks. By the middle of the 19th century geologists came to the conclusion that those explosions were associated with mud volcanoes (Abikh, 1939; Sjögren, 1887 and 1885–87). More and more facts on volcanic eruptions in this area were published. Later, mud volcanoes became, and still are, the objects of special attention of the Geological Institute of Azerbaijan. Field trips were arranged every year in order to observe volcanic activity. Hundreds of papers were published devoted to the analysis of activity and eruptions of specific volcanoes.
KeywordsSafety Distance Black Smoke Flame Length Flame Height Eruption Center
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