Fault and Fracture Hazards
The hazards discussed here are associated mostly with the sensitivity of mud volcanic activity, while the range of geological and tectonical reasons cause the faulting and fracturing is much wider. As was shown in Chapter 1, the unique geological conditions of the South Caspian Basin led to a complex situation, where rising diapirs have an impact on the surrounding sedimentary formations, causing large strain and stress. If the stress factor is strong enough for rock failure, it will cause some of the fracturing and faulting associated with shallow earthquakes. On the other hand, earthquakes alone can cause an eruption of a mud volcano. A small dislocation at the volcano vent will be like opening a “bottle cork”, so if the diapir is charged, then an eruption will start.
KeywordsMajor Earthquake Differential Stress Rock Failure Lame Constant Sediment Volume
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