Introduction to the Quantitative Assessment of Geological Hazards
Commercial oil and gas accumulations form in specific geological settings. Commonly those geological conditions are associated with different sorts of geological hazards. In addition, exploration and production equipment is very expensive. An ever-increasing percentage of oil reserves are concentrated offshore, which requires construction of special deep-water platforms, vessels, pipelines, etc. At the same time damage to such facilities can result in losing expensive construction, and may also lead to massive spillage of oil into the sea water or onto land. And then remediation costs can be much higher than all operational expenses and capital costs. The evacuation of personnel from platforms also takes a longer time than for onshore rigs where people can move themselves, using vehicles, or simply run away. Therefore, all oil companies pay much attention to the hazard aspects of the areas of future work and, before any kind of activity, they start with sea bed monitoring, shallow seismic and acquisition studies in order to estimate probable hazard activities and the most hazardous zones in their license areas. However, as a rule those investigations show “static” conditions of hazards in the area: microseismicity, positions of mud diapirs, gas pockets, hydrate layers, gryphons, etc. It is of great importance to provide “dynamic” estimates of how often a phenomenon can occur, how strong it can be, and how far its influence can extend in a most likely worst case.
KeywordsContinental Slope Geological Hazard Orogenic Process South Caspian Basin Apsheron Peninsula
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.