Integrated Passive Elements and Their Usage at High Frequencies
For the design of integrated circuits in the radio frequency band, equally important to active elements (transistors) are also the passive ones (inductors, capacitors, resistors). For example, the existence of high quality capacitors and inductors significantly determines the circuit performance and usually their shortage in an IC technology prevents the design of high frequency systems. Capacitors and ohmic resistors are elements that can be easily fabricated in analog silicon technologies. Recently, the fabrication of capacitors has been extended to digital (CMOS) technologies [1,2] due to their low cost and high level of integration they exhibit. Integrated inductors had not been fabricated within silicon processes until recently [3,4]. The main reason was the lack of a satisfactory model of the electrical and magnetic performance of the element. Recently, (1997) a complete model for integrated inductors over silicon substrates, along with a CAD tool, have been presented [5,6]. This effort will significantly boost the usage of inductors in silicon integrated circuits, something that has been very common and for many years in GaAs technologies.
KeywordsQuality Factor Mutual Inductance Parasitic Capacitance Bonding Wire Silicon Technology
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