Advertisement

Introduction

Decisions in uncertainty
  • Jaime Gil-Aluja
Part of the Applied Optimization book series (APOP, volume 32)

Abstract

During latter decades, the basic elements that have traditionally made up the society in which economic activity develops, have been submitted to the effect of multiple aggressions as a consequence of the outcome of events motivated by the nature itself of the human being, always seeking a level of happiness that is never reached. In a very brief manner we are accustomed to mention these by using words such as revolution, profound changes, convulsions...., the results of which are manifest through non-linear reactions that lead to a future charged with uncertainty.

Keywords

Equivalency Class Economic Science Fuzzy Graph Boolean Matrice Numerical Element 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Gil Aluja, J.: «La incertidumbre en la economia y gestitin de empresas». Proceedings of the IV Congress of the Spanish Association on Technolgy and Fuzzy Logic. Blanes, September 14, 1994, pages 9–14.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gil Aluja, j.: «Investment in uncertainty». Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1998, page 19–20.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Barre, Raymond: Prologue to the work by Kaufmann, A and Gil Aluja, J.: «Técnicas operativas de gestion para el tratamiento de la incertidumbre». Ed. Hispano Europea, Barcelona, 1987.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    These ideas were expounded on in Gil Aluja J.: «Towards a new paradigm of investment selection in uncertainty». Fuzzy Sets and Systems. Vol. 84, number 2, December 9, 1996, page 187–197.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Popper, Karl: «La logica de la investigaciOn cientifica». Ed. Tecnos, Madrid, 1971. The first edition of this work was dated 1934 and in it he inaugurates his philosophy on science, formulating the well known theory of falsability.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Khun, Thomas: «La estructura de las revoluciones cientificas». Ed. Fondo de Cultura Economica, Madrid, 1981. This work was written in 1962 and it is one of the many works written by the author on this subject.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Gil Aluja, J.: Lances y desventuras del nuevo paradigma de la teorla de la decision. Proceedings of the III Congress of the International Society For Management and Fuzzy Economy. Buenos Aires, November 10–13, 1996.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Gil Aluja, J.: Lances y desventuras del nuevo paradigma de la teorla de decision. Proceedings of the III SIGEF Congress. Buenos Aires 10–13 November, 1996.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    In all our examples on levels of degree in [0, 1[we have considered com-plementation in relation to truth - false.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    As is well known from any T-conorm an inference operator can be obtained by simply substituting the proposal or estimate a for āGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Reference can be made in this respect among other works to Kaufmann, A. and Gil Aluja, J.: Técnicas de Gestion de Empresa. Previsiones, decisiones y estrategias. Ed. Pirâmide. Madrid, 1992 page 227.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    We have simplified this statement here even at the risk of falling into certain errors, with the object of not excessively breaking the thread of our reasoning.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    We are referring to the work of Zahed, L.: “Fuzzy Sets”, Information and Control, 8 june 1965, pages 338–353 from which arose the so-called Theory of fuzzy sub-sets.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kaufmann, A and Gil Aluja, J.: Modelos para la investigacion de efectos olvidados. Ed. Milladoiro. Santiago de Compostela, 1988.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    See for example, Kaufmann A. and Gil Aluja, J.: Técnicas especiales para la gestion de expertos. Ed. Milladoiro. Santiago de Compostela 1993, pages 151–175.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Let us recall that the concept of valuation is similar to a numerical assignment made subjectively. Subjectivity id the characteristic that differentiates it from measurement, which is an eminently objective characteristic.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kaufmann, A. and Gil Aluja, J.: Modelos para la investigaciOn de efectos olvidados. Ed. Milladoiro, Santiago de Compostela, 1988.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ix Gil Aluja, J.: MAPCLAN. Model for assembling products by means of clans. Proceedings of the Third International Conference on modelling and simulation MS’97. Melbourne October 29–31 1997, pages 496–504.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gil Lafuente, A.M.: Fundamentos de Anc lisis Financiero. Ed. Ariel. Barcelona, 1993, pages 285–300.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gil Aluja, J.: Investment in uncertainty. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1998, pages 113–141.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gil Lafuente, J.: Marketing para el nuevo milenio. Ed. Pirâmide. Madrid, 1997, pages 145–161.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gil Aluja, J.: La gestion interactiva de los recursos humanos en la incertidumbre. Ed. CEURA, Madrid 1996, pages 145–158.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Pichat, E.: Algorithm for finding the maximal elements of a finite universal algebra. Inform Processing 68 Publ. North Holland, 1969.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Kaufmann, A.: Modèles mathématiques pour la stimulation inventive. Ed. Albin Michel, 1979, page 62.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    As an example we mention the works of Kaufmann, A. and Gil Aluja, J.: Técnicas de gestion de empresa. Previsiones, decisiones y estrategias. Ed. Pir.mide, Madrid 1992 chapter 10 and Técnicas especiales para la gestion de expertos. Ed. Milladoiro. Santiago de Compostela, 1993, chapter 13, by the same authors.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Saaty, T.L.: Exploring the interface between hierarchies, multiple objectives and fuzzy sets. Fuzzy Sets and Systems. 1978, Vol I No. 1, pages 5768.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Dinh, Xuân Ba.: A method for estimating the membership function of a fuzzy set. Revue Busefal, L.S.I. University Paul Sabatier. Toulouse 1984, No. 19, pages 68–82.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaime Gil-Aluja
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Barcelona UniversitySpain
  2. 2.Paris-Dauphine UniversityFrance

Personalised recommendations