Advertisement

Clinical Prevention

  • Evan W. Kligman
  • Frank A. Hale

Abstract

Clinical prevention is the connecting link between public health and primary care. Health education and health promotion counseling skills are among the most important tools in the family physician’s medical bag. A major challenge facing the family physician is how to bridge the gap between clinical prevention knowledge and practice, recognizing the impact of personal behaviors on health. The traditional biomedical approach to the diagnosis and treatment of disease is only a partial response to addressing the health care needs of patients. Americans want preventive care; according to national polls, most adults would change their doctor if they believed they were not getting appropriate clinical preventive services.1 Patient care must encompass a prospective preventive approach toward helping individuals and families assume major responsibility for their own health-related behaviors.2,3

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Family Physician Preventive Service Fecal Occult Blood Testing Preventive Service Task 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    McGinnis JM. Put prevention into practice. Arch Intern Med 1996;156:130–2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    US DHHS. Healthy people 2000: national health promotion and disease prevention objectives. PHS 91–50212. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1991.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    US DHHS. Healthy people 2000: midcourse review and 1995 revisions. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1995.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pommerenke FA, Dietrich AD. Improving and maintaining preventive services. 2. Practical principles for primary care. J Fam Pract 1992;34:92–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    US Preventive Services Task Force. Guide to clinical preventive services: an assessment of the effectiveness of 169 interventions. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Thompson RS, Woolf SH, Taplin SH, et al. How to organize a practice for the development and delivery of preventive services. In: Woolf SH, Jonas S, Lawrence RS, editors. Health promotion and disease prevention in clinical practice. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1996:483–504.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Canadian Medical Association. The role of physicians in prevention and health promotion. Can Med Assoc J 1995; 153:208A-B.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    AAFP Subcommittee on Periodic Health Intervention. Age charts for periodic health examination. Reprint No. 510. Kansas City, MO: American Academy of Family Physicians, 1996.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Healthy people: the Surgeon General’s report on health promotion and disease prevention. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1979. DHEW pub. No. (PHS) 79–55071.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    McGinnis JM, Foege WH. Actual causes of death in the United States. JAMA 1993;270:2207–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    US DHHS. Clinician’s handbook of preventive services. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Borkan JM, Neher JO. A developmental model of ethno-sensitivity in family practice training. Fam Med 1991;23: 212–17.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Clarke WR, Lauer RM. The predictive value of childhood cholesterol screening. JAMA 1992;267:101–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    National Cholesterol Education Program. Highlights of the report of the expert panel on blood cholesterol levels in children and adolescents. Am Fam Physician 1992;45:2127–36.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Kluger CZ, Morrison JA, Daniels SR. Preventive practices for adult cardiovascular disease in children. J Fam Pract 1991;33:65–72.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    American Medical Association. AMA guidelines for adolescent preventive services: recommendations and rationale. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1994.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Manson JE, Tosteson H, Satterfield S, et al. The primary prevention of myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 1992; 326:1406–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Steenland K. Passive smoking and the risk of heart disease. JAMA 1992;267:94–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Evans CH, Karunaratne HB. Exercise stress testing for the family physician. I. Performing the test. Am Fam Physician 1991;45:121–32.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Solberg LI, Maxwell PL, Kottke TE, Gepner GJ, Brekke ML. A systematic primary care office-based smoking cessation program. J Fam Pract 1990;30:647–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wingo PA, Tong T, Boloden S. Cancer statistics, 1995. CA 1995;45:8–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Public Health Focus: Mammography. MMWR 1992;41:454–9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Levine R, Tenner S, Fromm H. Prevention and early detection of colorectal cancer. Am Fam Physician 1992;45:663–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Selby JV, Friedman GD, Quesenberry CD, et al. A case-control study of screening sigmoidoscopy and mortality for colorectal cancer. N Engl J Med 1992;326:653–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Crawford ED, Schutz MJ, Clejan S, et al. The effect of a digital rectal examination on prostate specific antigen levels. JAMA 1992;267:2227–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bourguet CC, Hamrick GA, Gilchrist VJ. The prevalence of osteoporosis risk factors and physician intervention. J Fam Pract 1991;32:265–71.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Thun MJ, Namboodiri MM, Health CW. Aspirin use and reduced risk of fatal colon cancer. N Engl J Med 1991;325: 1593–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cooper KH. Antioxidant revolution. Nashville: Thomas Nelson, 1994.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Zazove P, Mehr DR, Riffin MT, et al. A criterion-based review of preventive health care in the elderly. 2. A geriatric health maintenance program. J Fam Pract 1992;34:320–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Ham RJ. Indicators of poor nutritional status in older Americans. Am Fam Physician 1992;45:219–28.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Frame PS. Health maintenance in clinical practice: strategies and barriers. Am Fam Physician 1992;45:1192–1200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Johns MB, Howell MF, Drastal CA, et al. Promoting preventive services in primary care: a controlled trial. Am J Prev Med 1992;8:135–40.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Shank JC, Powell T, Llewelyn J. A five-year demonstration project associated with improvement in physician health maintenance behavior. Fam Med 1989;21:273–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Dickey LL, Petitti D. A patient-held minirecord to promote preventive care. J Fam Pract 1992;34:457–63.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    McDowell I, Newell C, Rosser W. A follow-up study of patients advised to obtain influenza immunizations. Fam Med 1990;22:303–6.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Austin SM, Balas EA, Mitchell JA, et al. Effect of physician reminders on preventive care: meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Proceedings of the Annual Symposium on Computer Applications in Medical Care: 121–4,1994.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Garr DR, Ornstein SM, Jenkins RG, et al. The effect of routine use of computer-generated preventive reminders in a clinical practice. Am J Prev Med 1993;9:55–61.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Lebuhn CB, Flanagan JR, Helms CM, et al. Comparison of interventions to improve pneumococcal vaccine delivery in ambulatory care. Poster presented at the Infectious Disease Society of America, September 1996.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Peterson KW, Hilles SB, editors. SPM handbook of health risk appraisals. Charlottesville, VA: Society of Prospective Medicine, 1996.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ellis LBM, Joo H, Gross CR. Use of a computer-based health risk appraisal by older adults. J Fam Pract 1991;33:390–4.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Aukerman GF. Developing a patient education newsletter. J Fam Pract 1991;33:304–5.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Towner P, Marvel MK. A school-based intervention to increase the use of bicycle helmets. Fam Med 1992;24:156–8.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McDonald CJ, Hui SL, Smith DM, et al. Reminders to physicians from an interactive computer medical record. Ann Intern Med 1984;100:130–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Konen JC. Systems to improve clinical prevention. Arch Fam Med 1994;3:223–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Struewing JP, Pape DM, Snow DA. Improving colorectal cancer screening in a medical resident’s primary care clinic. Am J Prev Med 1991;7:75–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cooper JK. Accountability for clinical preventive services. Milit Med 1995;160:297–9.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Frame PS. Clinical prevention in primary care; everyone talks about it, why aren’t we doing it? J Am Board Fam Pract 1994;7:449–50.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Parkinson MD. Paying for prevention: recent developments and future strategies. J Fam Pract 1991;33:529–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Woolhandler S, Himmelstein DU. Reverse targeting of preventive care due to lack of health insurance. JAMA 1988;259: 2872–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Hamblin JE. Physician recommendations for screening mammography: results of a survey using clinical vignettes. J Fam Pract 1991;32:472–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Davis K, Bialek R, Parkinson M, et al. Paying for preventive care: moving the debate forward. Am J Prev Med 1990;6:32.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Fries JF. Aging, natural death, and a compression of morbidity. N Engl J Med 1980;303:130–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Evan W. Kligman
  • Frank A. Hale

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations