Space Science: Long-distance tracking and data acquisition from “deep” space probes such as Voyager.
Radio Astronomy: Very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), made possible through a common phase reference.
Planetary Motion: The dynamics of the Earth as a planet and the variability of the length of the day.
Radio Navigation: Perhaps the most useful application. Land-based networks Loran-C and Omega, and the satellite-based systems the TRANSIT system, culminating in the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS) and GLONASS.
KeywordsGlobal Position System Radio Wave Very Long Baseline Interferometry Satellite Clock Atomic Clock
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