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Medications of Abuse and Addiction

Benzodiazepines and Other Sedatives/Hypnotics
  • Norman S. Miller
  • Debra L. Klamen
  • Erminio Costa
Chapter

Abstract

Most medications with major potential for abuse and addiction belong to the sedative-hypnotic class. This encompasses benzodiazepines, barbiturates, and the opiates (including natural and synthetic derivations of opium) (Jaffe, 1990; Jaffe & Martin, 1990; Rall, 1990). This chapter is devoted to the sedative-hypnotic class, featuring benzodiazepines and including other sedative-hypnotic medications. In 1826 bromides were the first sedatives after alcohol to be marketed specifically for the sedative-hypnotic effects. Next, barbituric acid was introduced in 1903 followed by chloral hydrate (“Mickey Finn”) in 1932 and meprobamate in 1955. Morphine was discovered in 1806, followed by codeine in 1832, then development of the synthetic derivatives of opiates in the mid 1900s.

Keywords

Anxiety Disorder Substance Abuse Treatment Chloral Hydrate Barbituric Acid Abuse Liability 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Norman S. Miller
    • 1
  • Debra L. Klamen
    • 1
  • Erminio Costa
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryThe University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA

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