Advertisement

Assessment Issues in Child Abuse Evaluations

  • Joel S. Milner
  • William D. Murphy
  • Linda A. Valle
  • Randi M. Tolliver
Part of the Issues in Clinical Child Psychology book series (ICCP)

Abstract

Professionals have used a variety of techniques to evaluate offender characteristics thought to be related to child abuse. Current assessment approaches include the use of interviews, observations, general personality measures, offender-specific measures, and specialized risk assessment models. Offender evaluations are conducted for a variety of reasons, including screening for child abuse risk status, child abuse report confirmation, treatment planning, treatment evaluation, and prediction of reabuse. Unfortunately, as detailed here, supportive psychometric data are frequently lacking on the appropriateness of using available assessment techniques in various evaluation situations. Even when psychometric data exist, information is rarely available on the appropriateness of using different assessment techniques with demographically diverse populations.

Keywords

Child Sexual Abuse Sexual Arousal Child Protective Service Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Child Physical Abuser 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abel, G. G., Barlow, D. H., Blanchard, E. B., & Mavissakalian, M. (1975). Measurement of sexual arousal in male homosexuals: The effects of instructions and stimulus modality.Archives of Sexual Behavior, 4, 623–629.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abel, G. G., Becker, J. V., Cunningham-Rathner, J., Rouleau, J. L., Kaplan, M, & Reich, J. (1984). The treatment of child molesters. Atlanta: Emory University Press.Google Scholar
  3. Abel, G. G., Becker, J. V., Murphy, W. D., & Flanagan, B. (1981). Identifying dangerous child molesters. In R. B. Stuart (Ed.),Violent behavior: Special learning approaches to prediction, management, and treatment(pp. 116–137). New York: Brunner/Mazel.Google Scholar
  4. Abel, G. G., Blanchard, E. B., & Barlow, D. H. (1981). Measurement of sexual arousal in several paraphilias: The effects of stimulus modality, instructional set and stimulus content on the objective. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 19, 25–33.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Abel, G. G., Gore, D. K., Holland, C. L., Camp, N., Becker, J. V., & Rathner, J. (1989). The measurement of the cognitive distortions of child molesters. Annals of Sex Research, 2, 135–152.Google Scholar
  6. Abidin, R. R. (1995). Parenting Stress Index—Manual(3rd ed.). Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
  7. Acton, R. G., & During, S. M. (1992). Preliminary results of aggression management training for aggressive parents. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 7, 410–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Altemeier, W. A., O’Connor, S., Vietz, P. M., Sandler, H. M., & Sherrod, K. B. (1982). Antecedents of child abuse. Journal of Pediatrics, 100, 823–829.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. American Psychological Association. (1985). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  10. Ammerman, R. T., & Hersen, M. (Eds.). (1992). Assessment of family violence: A clinical and legal sourcebook. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  11. Anderson, W. P., & Kunce, J. T. (1979). Sex offenders: Three personality types. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 35, 671–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aragona, J. A. (1983). Physical child abuse: An interactional analysis (Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida, 1983). Dissertation Abstracts International, 44, 1225B.Google Scholar
  13. Armentrout, J. A., & Hauer, A. L. (1978). MMPIs of rapists of adults, rapists of children, and non-rapist sex offenders. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 34, 330–332.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Arruabarrena, M. I., & De Paul, J. (1992). Validez convergente de la version espanola preliminar del Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Depresion y ajuste marital. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 119–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Attias, R., & Goodwin, J. (1985). Knowledge and management strategies in incest cases: A survey of physicians, psychologists, and family counselors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 9, 527–533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Avery-Clark, C. A., & Laws, D. R. (1984). Differential erection response patterns of child sexual abusers to stimuli describing activities with children. Behavior Therapy, 15, 71–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baird, C. (1988). Development of risk assessment indices for the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services. In T. Tatara (Ed.) ,Validation research in CPS risk assessment: Three recent studies(pp. 85–139). Occasional monograph series of APWA Social R&D Department, 2. Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  18. Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, W. L. (1988). Deviant sexual arousal, offense history, and demographic variables as predictors of reoffense among child molesters. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 6, 267–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, W. L. (1989). Erectile responses among heterosexual child molesters, father-daughter incest offenders and matched nonoffenders: Five distinct age preference profiles. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 21, 70–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Barth, R. P. (1989). Evaluation of a task-centered child abuse prevention program. Children and Youth Services Review, 11, 117–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bauer, W. D., & Twentyman, C. T. (1985). Abusing, neglectful, and comparison mothers’ responses to child-related and non-child-related stressors. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 53, 335–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Bavolek, S. J. (1984). Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI). Eau Clair, WI: Family Development Resources.Google Scholar
  23. Bavolek, S. J. (1989). Assessing and treating high-risk parenting attitudes. In J. T. Pardeck (Ed.) ,Child abuse and neglect: Theory, research, and practice. (pp97–110). New York: Gordon & Breach.Google Scholar
  24. Baxter, D. J., Marshall, W. L., Barbaree, H. E., Davidson, P. R., & Malcolm, P. B. (1984). Deviant sexual behavior: Differentiating sex offenders by criminal and personal history, psychometric measures, and sexual response. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 11, 477–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bazerman, M. H. (1990). Judgement in managerial decision making(2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  26. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Beck, K. A., Ogloff, J. R. P., & Corbishley, A. (1994). Knowledge, compliance, and attitudes of teachers toward mandatory child abuse reporting in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Education, 19, 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Beckett, R., Beech, A., Fisher, D., & Fordham, A. S. (1994). Community-based treatment for sex offenders: An evaluation of seven treatment programmes. (Home Office Occasional Paper). London: Home Office.Google Scholar
  29. Berkowitz, S. (1991, December). Key findings on definitions of risk to children and uses of risk assessment by state CPS agencies from the state survey component of the study of high risk child abuse and neglect groups. Paper presented at the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect Symposium on Risk Assessment, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  30. Black, M. M., Nair, P., Kight, C, Wachtel, R., Roby, P., & Schuier, M. (1994). Parenting and early development among children of drug-abusing women: Effects of home intervention. Pediatrics, 94, 440–448.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Boat, B. W., & Everson, M. D. (1988). Use of anatomical dolls among professionals in sexual abuse evaluations. Child Abuse & Neglect12, 171–179.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Broussard, S. D., & Wagner, W. G. (1988). Child sexual abuse: Who is to blame? Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 563–569.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Burge, E. B. (1982). Child abusive attitudes and life changes in an overseas military environment (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University, 1982). Dissertation Abstracts International, 43, 562A.Google Scholar
  34. Burrell, B., Thompson, B., & Sexton, D. (1992). The measurement integrity of data collected using the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 52, 933–1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Caldwell, B. M., & Bradley, R. H. (1978). Home Observation for Measurement of Environment. Little Rock: University of Arkansas.Google Scholar
  36. Caldwell, R. A., Bogat, G. A., & Davidson, W. S., II. (1988). The assessment of child abuse potential and the prevention of child abuse and neglect: A policy analysis. American Journal of Community Psychology, 16, 609–624.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Caliso, J. A., & Milner, J. S. (1992). Childhood history of abuse and child abuse screening. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 647–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Campis, L. K., Lyman, R. D., & Prentice-Dunn, S. (1986). The Parental Locus of Control Scale: Development and validation. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 19, 260–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Carroll, J. L., & Fuller, G. B. (1971). An MMPI comparison of three groups of criminals. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 27, 240–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Casanova, G. M., Domanic, J., McCanne, T. R., & Milner, J. S. (1992). Physiological responses to nonchild-related stressors in mothers at risk for child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 31–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Chaplin, T. C, Rice, M. E., & Harris, G. T. (1995). Salient victim suffering and the sexual responses of child molesters. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 63, 249–255.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Chilamkurti, C, & Milner, J. S. (1993). Perceptions and evaluations of child transgressions and disciplinary techniques in high- and low-risk mothers and their children. Child Development, 64, 1801–1814.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Cicchinelli, L. F. (1990). Risk assessment models: CPS agencies and future directions. In CPS Risk Assessment Conference “From research to practice: Designing the future of child protective services”(pp. 79–96). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  44. Cicchinelli, L. F. (1995). Risk assessment: Expectations and realities. The APSAC Advisor, 6(4), 3–8.Google Scholar
  45. Conte, J. R. (1985). Clinical dimensions of adult sexual abuse of children. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 3, 341–354.Google Scholar
  46. Costello, T. (1990). Practice issues: Risk assessment and the CPS worker. In CPS Risk Assessment Conference “From research to practice: Designing the future of child protective services”. (pp97–123). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  47. Coulton, C. J., Korbin, J. E., Su, M., & Chow, J. (1995). Community level factors and child maltreatment rates. Child Development, 66, 1262–1276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Couron, B. L. (1982). Assessing parental potentials for child abuse in contrast to nurturing (Doctoral dissertation, United States International University, 1981). Dissertation Abstracts International, 42, 3412B.Google Scholar
  49. Crenshaw, W. B., Lichtenberg, J. W., & Bartell, P. A. (1993). Mental health providers and child sexual abuse: A multivariate analysis of the decision to report. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 2(4), 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Crouch, J., Milner, J. S., & Caliso, J. A. (1995). Childhood physical abuse, perceived social support, and socio-emotional status in adulthood. Violence and Victims, 10, 273–283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Crowe, H. P., & Zeskind, P. S. (1992). Psychophysiological and perceptual responses to infant cries varying in pitch: Comparison of adults with low and high scores on the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Child Abuse & Neglect, 16, 19–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. D’Agostino, P. A., Chapin, F., & Moore, J. B. (1984, September). Rainbow Family Learning Center: Help for parents, haven for children. Paper presented at the meeting of the Fifth International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect, Montreal.Google Scholar
  53. Dahlstrom, W. G., Welsh, G. S., & Dahlstrom, L. E. (1972). An MMPI handbook: Volume 1: Clinical interpretation. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  54. Davis, M. G. (1983). Measuring individual differences in empathy: Evidence for a multidimensional approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 44, 113–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Deitrich-MacLean, G., & Walden, T. (1988). Distinguishing teaching interactions of physically abusive from nonabusive parent-child dyads. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 469–479.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. De Paul, J., Arruabarrena, I., & Milner, J. S. (1991). Validation de una version Espanola del Child Abuse Potential Inventory para su uso en Espana. Child Abuse & Neglect. 15, 495–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. De Paul, J., Milner, J. S., & Mugica, F. (1995). Childhood physical abuse, perceived social support, and child abuse potential in a Basque sample. Child Abuse & Neglect. 19, 907–920.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. De Paul, J., & Rivero, A. (1992). Version Espanola del Inventario Child Abuse Potential: Validez convergente y apoyo social. Revista de Psicologia General y Aplicada, 45, 49–54.Google Scholar
  59. Derogatis, L. R., & Meyer, J. K. (1979). A psychological profile of the sexual dysfunctions. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 8, 201–223.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Derr, J. (1978). Using the Rorschach inkblot test in the assessment of parents charged with child abuse and neglect. Projective Psychology, 23, 29–31.Google Scholar
  61. Disbrow, M. A., Doerr, H. O., & Caulfield, C. (1977). Measuring the components of parents’ potential for child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 1, 279–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Doueck, H. J., English, D., DePanfilis, D., & Moote, G. T. (1993). Decision-making in child protective services: A comparison of selected risk-assessment systems. Child Welfare, 72, 441–452.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Doueck, H. J., Levine, M., & Bronson, D. E. (1993). Risk assessment in child protective services: An evaluation of the Child at Risk Field System. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 446–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Dukes, R. L., & Kean, R. B. (1989). An experimental study of gender and situation in the perception and reportage of child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 351–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Duthie, B., & Mclvor, D. L. (1990). A new system for cluster-coding child molester MMPI profile types. Criminal Justice and Behavior17, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ellis, R. H., & Milner, J. S. (1981). Child abuse and locus of control. Psychological Reports, 48, 507–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Emmerich, W. (1969). The parental role: A functional-cognitive approach. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 34(8, Serial No. 132).Google Scholar
  68. English, D. J., Aubin, S. W., & Fine, D. (1993). Evaluation of conformance between individual risk factors and overall level of risk. In T. Tatara (Ed.) ,Sixth National Roundtable on CPS Risk Assessment. (pp235–260). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  69. English, D. J., & Pecora, P. J. (1994). Risk assessment as a practice method in child protective services. Child Welfare, 73, 451–473.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Erickson, W D., Luxenburg, M. G., Walbek, N. H., & Seely, R. K. (1987). Frequency of MMPI two-point code types among sex offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 566–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Evans, J., Whiteside, D., & Cohen, M. (1992). Evaluation results of the pilot of the Child-at-Risk Field. In T. Tatara (Ed.) ,Fifth National Roundtable on CPS Risk Assessment. (pp 37–53). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  72. Fanshel, D., Finch, S. J., & Grundy, J. F. (1994). Testing the measurement properties of risk assessment instruments in child protective services. Child Abuse & Neglect, 12, 1073–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Fluke, J. D., Wells, S., England, P., Walsh, W, English, D., Johnson, W, Gamble, T, & Woods, L. (1994). Evaluation of the Pennsylvania approach to risk assessment: Summary of the results for project ob jectives 1, 2, and 4 . In T. Tatara (Ed.) ,Seventh National Roundtable on CPS Risk Assessment(pp. 115–170). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  74. Frenzel, R. R., & Lang, R. A. (1989). Identifying sexual preferences in intrafamilial and extrafamilial child sexual abusers. Annals of Sex Research, 2, 255–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Freund, K. (1965). Diagnosing heterosexual pedophilia by means of a test for sexual interest. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 3, 229–234.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Freund, K. (1967a). Diagnosing homo- or heterosexuality and erotic age-preference by means of a psychophysiological test. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 5, 209–228.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Freund, K. (1967b). Erotic preference in pedophilia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 5,. 339–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Freund, K., & Blanchard, R. (1989). Phallometric diagnosis of pedophilia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 57, 100–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Freund, K, & Watson, R. J. (1991). Assessment of the sensitivity and specificity of a phallometric test: An update of phallometric diagnosis of pedophilia. Psycholoyical Assessment, 3, 254–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Freund, K., Watson, R. J., & Dickey, R. (1991). Sex offenses against female children perpetrated by men who are not pedophiles The Journal of Sex Research, 28, 409–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Friedrich, W. N., Tyler, J. D., & Clark, J. A. (1985). Personality and psychophysiological variables in abusive, neglectful, and low-income control mothers. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173 ,449–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Frodi, A. M., & Lamb, M. E. (1980). Child abusers’ responses to infant smiles and cries. Child Development, 51, 238–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Fulton, A. M, Murphy, K. R., & Anderson, S. L. (1991). Increasing adolescent mothers’ knowledge of child development: An intervention program. Adolescence, 26, 73–81.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Gabinet, L. (1979). MMPI profiles of high-risk and outpatient mothers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 3, 373–379.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Goeke, J. M., & Boyer, M. C. (1993). The failure to construct an MMPI-based incest perpetrator scale. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 37, 271–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Gore, D. K. (1988). Cognitive distortions of child molesters and the cognition scale: Reliability validity, treatment effects, and prediction of recidivism. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgia State University, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  87. Groff, M. G., & Hubble, L. M. (1984). A comparison of father-daughter and stepfather-stepdaughter incest. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 11, 461–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Grossman, L. S., & Cavanaugh, J. L. (1990). Psychopathology and denial in alleged sex offenders. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 178, 739–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Grossman, L. S., Cavanaugh, J. L., & Haywood, T. W. (1992). Deviant sexual responsiveness on penile plethysmography using visual stimuli: Alleged child molesters vs. normal control subjects. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 180, 207–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Hall, G. C. N. (1988). Criminal behavior as a function of clinical and actuarial variables in a sexual offender population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56 , 773–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Hall, G. C. N. (1989). Sexual arousal and arousability in a sexual offender population. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 98, 145–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Hall, G. C. N., Maiuro, R. D., Vitaliano, P. P., & Proctor, W D. (1986). The utility of the MMPI with men who have sexually assaulted children. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 493–496.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hall, G. C. N., & Proctor, W. C. (1987). Criminological predictors of recidivism in a sexual offender population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 111–112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Hall, G. C. N., Proctor, W. C, & Nelson, G. M. (1988). The validity of physiological measures of pedophilic sexual arousal in a sexual offender population. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 118–122.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Hamilton, M. (1986). The Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression. In N. Sartorius & T. A. Ban (Eds.) ,Assessment of depression. (pp143–152). Berlin: Springer-Verlag.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Hammer, E. F. (1955). A comparison of H-T-P’s of rapists and pedophiles. Journal of Projective Techniques, 18, 346–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hampton, R. L., & Newberger, E. H. (1985). Child abuse incidence and reporting by hospitals: Significance of severity, class, and race. American Journal of Public Health, 75, 56–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Hann, D. M. (1989). A systems conceptualization of the quality of mother-infant interaction. Infant Behavior and Development, 12, 251–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Hansen, D. J., & MacMillan, V. M. (1990). Behavioral assessment of child-abusive and neglectful families: Recent developments and current issues. Behavior Modification14, 225–278.Google Scholar
  100. Hanson, R. F., Lipovsky, J. A., & Saunders, B. E. (1994). Characteristics of fathers in incest families. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 155–169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Hanson, R. K., & Bussiere, M. (1995, September). Predictors of sexual offender recidivism. Paper presented at the NOTA Conference, Cambridge, England.Google Scholar
  102. Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., Quinsey, V. L., Chaplin, T. C., & Earls, C. (1992). Maximizing the discriminant validity of phallometric assessment data. Psychological Assessment, 4, 502–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Hart, A. N. (1989). Review of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, Form IV. In J. C. Conoley & J. J. Kramer (Eds.). The tenth mental measurements yearbook. (pp152–153). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurement.Google Scholar
  104. Hartman, G. L., Karlson, H., & Hibbard, R. A. (1994). Attorney attitudes regarding behaviors associated with child sexual abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 657–662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Haskett, M. E., Johnson, C. A., & Miller, J. W. (1994). Individual differences in risk of child abuse by adolescent mothers: Assessment in the perinatal period. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 35, 461–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hawkins, R., & Tiedeman, G. (1975). The creation of deviance: Interpersonal and organizational determinants, Columbus, OH: Merrill.Google Scholar
  107. Hayashino, D. S., Wurtele, S. K., & Klebe, K. J. (1995). Child molesters: An examination of cognitive factors. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 106–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Haywood, T. W., Grossman, L. S., & Cavanaugh, J. L. (1990). Subjective versus objective measurements of deviant sexual arousal in clinical evaluations of alleged child molesters. Psychological Assessment, 2, 269–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Haywood, T. W., Grossman, L. S., Kravitz, H. M., & Wasyliw, O. E. (1994). Profiling psychological distortion in alleged child molesters. Psychological Reports, 75, 915–927.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Hazzard, A., & Rupp, G. (1986). A note on the knowledge and attitudes of professional groups toward child abuse. Journal of Community Psychology, 14, 219–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Helfer, R. E., Hoffmeister, J. K., & Schneider, C. J. (1978). MSPP: A manual for the use of the Michigan Screening Profile of Parenting. Boulder, CO: Express Press.Google Scholar
  112. Herzberger, S. D., & Tennen, H. (1985). “Snips and snails and puppy dog tails”: Gender of agent, recipient, and observer as determinants of perceptions of discipline. Sex Roles, 12, 853–865.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Hogan, R. (1969). Development of an empathy scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 307–316.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Holden, E. W., & Banez, G. A. (1996). Child abuse potential and parenting stress within maltreating families. Journal of Family Violence, 11, 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Holden, E. W., Willis, D. J., & Foltz, L. (1989). Child abuse potential and parenting stress: Relationships in maltreating parents. Psychological Assessment, 1, 64–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment scale. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 11,213–218.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Horley, J., & Quinsey,V. L. (1994). Assessing the cognitions of child molesters: Use of the semantic differential with incarcerated offenders. The Journal of Sex Research, 31, 171–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Horner, T. M., Guyer, M. J., & Kalter, N. M. (1993). Clinical expertise and the assessment of child sexual abuse. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 32, 925–931.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Jackson, H., & Nuttall, R. (1993). Clinician responses to sexual abuse allegations. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 127–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Johnson, W. (1991). Accuracy, efficiency, and research standards for risk assessment systems. In T. Tatara (Ed.) ,Fourth National Roundtable on CPS Risk Assessment. (pp145–159). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  121. Johnson, W. (1994). Maltreatment reference as a criterion for validating risk assessment. In T. Tatara (Ed.) ,Seventh National Roundtable on CPS Risk Assessment. (pp173–182). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  122. Kalichman, S. C. (1990). Affective and personality characteristics of MMPI profile subgroups of incarcerated rapists. Archives of Sexual Rehavior, 19, 443–459.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kalichman, S. G (1991). Psychopathology and personality characteristics of criminal sexual offenders as a function of victim age. Archives of Sexual Rehavior, 20, 187–197.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Kalichman, S. C. (1992). Clinicians’ attributions of responsibility for sexual and physical child abuse: An investigation of case-specific influences. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 1(2), 33–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kalichman, S. G, Dwyer, M., Henderson, M. C, & Hoffman, L. (1992). Psychological and sexual functioning among outpatient sexual offenders against children: A Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) cluster analytic study. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14, 259–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kalichman, S. C., & Henderson, M. (1991). MMPI profile subtypes of nonincarcerated child molesters: A cross-validation study. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 18, 379–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Kalichman, S. C, Henderson, M. C, Shealy, L. S., & Dwyer, M. (1992). Psychometric properties of the Multiphasic Sex Inventory in assessing sex offenders. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 19, 384–396.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Kalichman, S. C, Szymanowski, D., McKee, J., Taylor, J., & Craig, M. (1989). Cluster analytically derived MMPI profile subgroups of incarcerated adult rapists. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 149–155.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Kanner, A. D., Coyne, J. C, Schaefer, C, & Lazarus, R. S. (1981). Comparison of two modes of stress measurement: Daily hassles and uplifts versus major events. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 4, 1–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Kaufman, K. L., & Walker, C. E., (1986). The Child Abuse Potential Inventory. In D. J. Keyser & R. C. Sweetland (Eds.) ,Test critiques. (Vol5, pp. 55–64). Kansas City, MO: Test Corporation of America.Google Scholar
  131. Kelly, J. (1983). Treating child-abusive families. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  132. Keltner, A. A., Marshall, P. G., & Marshall, W. L. (1981). The description of assertiveness in a prison population. Corrective and Social Psychiatry, 27, 41–47.Google Scholar
  133. Kendall-Tackett, K. A., & Watson, M. W. (1991). Factors that influence professionals’ perceptions of behavioral indicators of child sexual abuse. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 385–395.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Kirkham, M. A., Schinke, S. P., Schilling, R. F., Meltzer, N. J., & Norelius, K. L. (1986). Cognitivebehavioral skills, social supports, and child abuse potential among mothers of handicapped children. Journal of Family Violence, 1, 235–245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Knutson, J. G. (1978). Child abuse as an area of aggression research. Journal of Pediatric Psychiatry, 3, 20–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Kogan, K. L. (1972). Specificity and stability of mother—child interactional styles. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 2, 160–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Kogan, K. L., & Gordon, B. M. (1975). Interpersonal behavior constructs: A revised approach to defining dyadic interactional styles. Psychological Reports, 36, 835–846.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Kolko, D. J., Kazdin, A. E., Thomas, A. M., & Day, B. (1993). Heightened child physical abuse potential: Child, parent, and family dysfunction. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 169–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Lamphear, V. S., Stets, J. P., Whitaker, P., & Ross, A. O. (1985, August). Maladjustment in at-risk for physical child abuse and behavior problem children: Differences in family environment and marital discord. Paper presented at the meeting of the American Psychological Association, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  140. Lang, R. A., Black, E. L., Frenzel, R. R., & Checkley, K. L. (1988). Aggression and erotic attraction toward children in incestuous and pedophilic men. Annals of Sex Research, 1, 417–441.Google Scholar
  141. Langevin, R., Paitich, D., Freeman, R., Mann, K., & Handy, L. (1978). Personality characteristics and sexual anomalies in males. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 10, 222–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Lanyon, R. I., & Lutz, R. W. (1984). MMPI discrimination of defensive and nondefensive felony sex offenders. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 841–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Laws, D. R., & Holmen, M. L. (1978). Sexual response faking by pedophiles. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 5, 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Laws, D. R., & Osborn, C. A. (1983). How to build and operate a behavioral laboratory to evaluate and treat sexual deviance. In J. G. Greer & I. R. Stuart (Eds.) ,The sexual aggressor: Current perspectives on treatment. (pp293–335). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  145. Lawson, J. S., Marshall, W. L., & McGrath, P. (1979). The Social Self-Esteem Inventory. Education and Psychological Measurement, 39, 803–811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among externality, powerful others and chance. In H. M. Lefcourt (Ed.) ,Research with the locus of control construct. (pp15–63). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  147. Levin, S. M., & Stava, L. (1987). Personality characteristics of sex offenders: A review. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 16, 57–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Litty, C. G., Kowalski, R., & Minor, S. (1996). Moderating effects of physical child abuse and perceived social support on potential to abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Magura, S., & Moses, B. S. (1986). Outcome measures for child welfare services: Theory and applications. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America.Google Scholar
  150. Malcolm, P. B., Andrews, D. A., & Quinsey, V. L. (1993). Discriminant and predictive validity of phallometrically measured sexual age and gender preference. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 486–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Mandel, D. R., Lehman, D. R., & Yuille, J. C. (1994). Should this child be removed from home? Hypothesis generation and information seeking as predictors of case decisions. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 1051–1062.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. Marques, J., Nelson, C, West, M. A., Day, D. M. (1994). The relationship between treatment goals and recidivism among child molesters. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 32, 577–588.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Marshall, W. L., Barbaree, H. E., & Butt, J. (1988). Sexual offenders against male children: Sexual preferences. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 26, 383–391.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Marshall, W. L., Barbaree, H. E., & Christophe, D. (1986). Sexual offenders against female children: Sexual preferences for age of victims and type of behavior. Canadian Journal of Behavioral Science, 18, 424–439.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Marshall, W. L., & Hall, G. C. N. (1995). The value of the MMPI in deciding forensic issues in accused sexual offenders. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 7, 205–219.Google Scholar
  156. Mash, E. J., Johnston, C, & Kovitz, K. (1983). A comparison of the mother—child interactions of physically abused and non-abused children during play and task situations. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 12, 337–346.Google Scholar
  157. Matthews, R. D. (1985). Screening and identification of child abusing parents through self-report inventories (Doctoral dissertation, Florida Institute of Technology, 1984). Dissertation Abstracts International, 46, 650B.Google Scholar
  158. McCanne, T. R., & Milner, J. S. (1991). Physiological reactivity of physically abusive and at-risk subjects to child-related stimuli. In J. S. Milner (Ed.) ,Neuropsychology of aggression. (pp147–166). Nor-well, MA: Kluwer Academic.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. McCreary, C. P. (1975). Personality differences among child molesters. Journal of Personality Assessment, 39, 591–593.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. McCurdy, K. (1995). Risk assessment in child abuse prevention programs. Social Work Research, 19(2) , 77–87.Google Scholar
  161. McDonald, T. P. (1991). Recurrence of maltreatment in relation to assessed risks. In T. Tatara (Ed.) ,Fourth National Roundtable on CPS Risk Assessment. (pp59–73). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  162. McDonald, T, & Marks, J. (1991). A review of risk factors assessed in child protective services. Social Service Review, 65, 112–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Mee, J. (1983). The relationship between stress and the potential for child abuse. Unpublished thesis, Macquarie University, New South Wales, Australia.Google Scholar
  164. Mehrabian, A., & Epstein, N. (1972). A measure of emotional empathy. Journal of Personality, 40, 525–543.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Melton, G. B. (1989). Review of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, Form IV. In J. C. Conoley, & J. J. Kramer (Eds.) ,The tenth mental measurements yearbook. (pp153–155). Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.Google Scholar
  166. Melton, G. B., & Limber, S. (1989). Psychologists’ involvement in cases of child maltreatment: Limits of role and expertise. American Psychologist, 44, 1225–1233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Merrill, L. L., Hervig, L. K., & Milner, J. S. (1996). Childhood parenting experiences, intimate partner conflict resolution, and adult risk for child physical abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 20, 1049–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Miller, T. R., Handal, P. J., Gilner, F. H., & Cross, J. F. (1991). The relationship of abuse and witnessing violence on the Child Abuse Potential Inventory with Black adolescents. Journal of Family Violence, 6, 351–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Milner, J. S. (1986a). The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Manual(2nd ed.). Webster, NC: Psytec.Google Scholar
  170. Milner, J. S. (1986b). Assessing child maltreatment: The role of testing. Journal of Sociology and Social Welfare, 13, 64–76.Google Scholar
  171. Milner, J. S. (1988). An ego-strength scale for the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Journal of Family Violence, 3, 151–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Milner, J. S. (1989a). Additional cross-validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Psychological Assessment, 1, 219–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Milner, J. S. (1989b). Applications and limitations of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. In J. T. Pardeck (Ed.) ,Child abuse and neglect: Theory, research and practice. (pp83–95). London: Gordon and Breach Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  174. Milner, J. S. (1989c). Applications of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 45, 450–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Milner, J. S. (1990). An interpretive manual for the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Webster, NC: Psytec.Google Scholar
  176. Milner, J. S. (1991a). Additional issues in child abuse assessment. American Psychologist, 46, 80–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Milner, J. S. (1991b). Medical conditions and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory specificity. Psychological Assessment, 3, 208–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Milner, J. S. (1991c). Physical child abuse perpetrator screening and evaluation. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 18, 47–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Milner, J. S. (1991d). Measuring parental personality characteristics and psychopathology in child maltreatment research. In R. H. Starr & D. A. Wolfe (Eds.) ,The effects of child abuse and neglect: Issues and research. (pp164–185). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  180. Milner, J. S. (1994). Assessing physical child abuse risk: The Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Clinical Psychology Review, 14, 547–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Milner, J. S. (in press). Individual and family characteristics associated with intrafamilial child physical and sexual abuse. In P. K. Trickett & C. Schellenbach ,Violence against children in the family and the community. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  182. Milner, J. S., Charlesworth, J. R., Gold, R. G., Gold, S. R., & Friesen, M. R. (1988). Convergent validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 44, 281–285.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Milner, J. S., & Chilamkurti, C. (1991). Physical child abuse perpetrator characteristics: A review of the literature. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 6, 345–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Milner, J. S., & Dopke, C. A. (1997). Child physical abuse: Review of offender characteristics. In D. A. Wolfe, R. J. McMahon, & R. deV. Peters (Eds.) ,Child abuse: New directions in prevention and treatment across the life span. (pp25–52). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  185. Milner, J. S., & Foody, R. (1994). The impact of mitigating information on attributions for positive and negative child behavior by adults at low- and high-risk for child abusive behavior. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 13, 335–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Milner, J. S., Gold, R. G., Ayoub, C. A., & Jacewitz, M. M. (1984). Predictive validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 879–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Milner, J. S., Gold, R. G., & Wimberley, R. C. (1986). Prediction and explanation of child abuse: Crossvalidation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 865–866.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Milner, J. S., Halsey, L., & Fultz, J. (1995). Empathic responsiveness and affective reactivity to infant stimuli in high- and low-risk for physical child abuse mothers. Child Abuse & Neglect, 19, 767–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Milner, J. S., & Robertson, K. R. (1989). Inconsistent response patterns and the prediction of child maltreatment. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 59–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Milner, J. S., & Robertson, K. R. (1990). Comparison of physical child abusers, intrafamilial sexual child abusers, and child neglecters. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 5, 37–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Milner, J. S., Robertson, K. R., & Rogers, D. L. (1990). Childhood history of abuse and adult child abuse potential. Journal of Family Violence, 5, 15–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Milner, J. S., & Wimberley, R. C. (1980). Prediction and explanation of child abuse. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 875–884.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Mollerstrom, W. W. (1993, January). U.S. Air Force Family Advocacy Proaram research initiative. Paper presented at the seventh annual meeting of the San Diego Conference on Responding to Child Maltreatment, San Diego.Google Scholar
  194. Mollerstrom, W. W., Patchner, M. A., & Milner, J. S. (1992). Family functioning and child abuse potential. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 48, 445–454.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Monahan, J. (1993). Limiting therapist exposure to Tarasoff liability: Guidelines for risk containment. American Psychologist, 48, 242–250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Monroe, L. D., & Schellenbach, C. J. (1989). Relationship of Child Abuse Potential Inventory scores to parental responses: A construct validity study. Child & Family Behavior Therapy, 11, 39–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Moos, R. H., & Moos, B. S. (1986). Family Environment Scale manual. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  198. Morris, J. L., Johnson, C. F., & Clasen, M. (1985). To report or not report: Physicians’ attitudes toward discipline and child abuse. American Journal of Diseases of Children, 139, 194–197.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. Moss, H. B., Mezzich, A., Yao, J. K., Gavaler, J., & Martin, C. S. (1995). Aggressivity among sons of substance-abusing fathers: Association with psychiatric disorder in the father and son, parental personality, pubertal development, and socioeconomic status. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse, 21, 195–208.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Muller, R. T., Caldwell, R. A., & Hunter, J. E. (1993). Child provocativeness and gender as factors contributing to the blaming of victims of physical child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 249–260.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Murphy, S., Orkow, B., & Nicola, R. M. (1985). Prenatal prediction of child abuse and neglect: A prospective study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 9, 225–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Murphy, W. D. (1990). Assessment and modification of cognitive distortions in sex offenders. In W. L. Marshall, D. R. Laws, & H. E. Barbaree (Eds.) ,Handbook of sexual assault: Issues, theories, and treatment of the offender. (pp331–342). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  203. Murphy, W. D., & Barbaree, H. E. (1994). Assessments of sexual offenders by measures of erectile response: Psychometric properties and decision making, Brandon, VT: Safer Society Press.Google Scholar
  204. Murphy, W. D., Haynes, M. R., Coleman, E. M., & Flanagan, B. (1985). Sexual responding of ‘nonrapists’ to aggressive sexual themes: Normative data. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 7, 37–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Murphy, W. D., Haynes, M. R., Stalgaitis, S. J., & Flanagan, B. (1986). Differential sexual responding among four groups of sexual offenders against children. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 8, 339–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Murphy, W. D., & Peters, J. M. (1992). Profiling child sexual abusers: Psychological considerations. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 19, 24–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Murphy, W. D., Rau, T. J., & Worley, P. J. (1994). The perils and pitfalls of profiling child sex abusers. APSAC Advisor, 7(3–4), 28–29.Google Scholar
  208. Murphy-Berman, V. (1994). A conceptual framework for thinking about risk assessment and case management in child protective services. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 193–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse. (1992). Evaluation of the William Penn Foundation child abuse prevention initiative. Chicago: Author.Google Scholar
  210. Nealer, J. B. (1992). A multivariate study of intergenerational transmission of child abuse (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 1992). Dissertation Abstracts International, 53, 1848A.Google Scholar
  211. Nichols, H. R., & Molinder, I. (1984). Multiphasic Sex Inventory. Tacoma, WA: Authors.Google Scholar
  212. Nuttall, R., & Jackson, H. (1994). Personal history of childhood abuse among clinicians. Child Abuse & Neglect, 18, 455–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. O’Donohue, W., & Letourneau, E. (1992). The psychometric properties of the penile tumescence assessment of child molesters. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 14, 123–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Oliva, A., Moreno, M. C, Palacios, J., & Saldana, D. (1995). Ideas sobre la infancia y predisposicion hacia el maltrato infantil. Infancia y Aprendizaje, 71, 111–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Osborne, Y. H., Williams, H. S., Rappaport, N. B., & Tuma, J. M. (1986, March). Potential child abusers: Deficits in childrearing knowledge and parental attitudes. Paper presented at the meeting of the Southeastern Psychological Association, Atlanta.Google Scholar
  216. O’Toole, A. W., O’Toole, R., Webster, S., & Lucal, B. (1993). Nurses’ responses to child abuse: A factorial survey. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 194–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. Otoole, R., Turbett, P., & Nalepka, C. (1983). Theories, professional knowledge, and diagnosis of child abuse. In D. Finkelhor, R. J. Gelles, G. T. Hotaling, & M. A. Straus (Eds.) ,The dark side of families: Current family violence research. (pp349–362). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  218. Paitich, D., Langevin, R., Freeman, R., Mann, K., & Handy, L. (1977). The Clarke SHQ: A clinical sex history questionnaire for males. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 6, 421–436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  219. Palmer, M. (1990). Multi-state analysis of risk assessment systems—Findings and implications for practice. In CPS Bisk Assessment Conference “From research to practice: Designing the future of child protective services”. (pp71–78). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  220. Panton, J. H. (1978). Personality differences appearing between rapists of adults, rapists of children, and non-violent sexual molesters of female children. Besearch Communications in Psychology, Psychiatry, and Behavior, 3, 385–393.Google Scholar
  221. Pascal, G. R., & Herzberg, F. I. (1954). The detection of deviant sexual practice from performance on the Rorschach test. Journal of Projective Techniques, 16, 366–373.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Paulson, M. J., Afifi, A. A., Chaleff, A., Thomason, M. L., & Liu, V. Y. (1975). An MMPI scale for identifying “at-risk” abusive parents. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 422–24.Google Scholar
  223. Paulson, M. J., Afifi, A. A., Thomason, M. L., & Chaleff, A. (1974). The MMPI: A descriptive measure of psychopathology in abusive parents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 30, 387–390.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Pecnik, N., & Ajdukovic, M. (1995). The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: Cross validation in Croatia. Psychological Reports, 76, 979–985.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Pecora, P. J. (1991). Investigating allegations of child maltreatment: The strengths and limitations of current risk assessment systems. Child and Youth Services, 15, 73–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Peters, J. M., & Murphy, W. D. (1992). Profiling child sexual abusers: Legal considerations. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 19, 38–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Pithers, W. D. (1990). Relapse prevention with sexual aggressors: A method for maintaining therapeutic gain and enhancing external supervision. In W. L. Marshall, D. R. Laws, & H. E. Barbaree (Eds.) ,Handbook of sexual assault: Issues, theories and treatment of the offender. (pp343–361). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  228. Proulx, J., Cote, G., & Achille, P. A. (1993). Prevention of voluntary control of penile response in homosexual pedophiles during phallometric testing. The Journal of Sex Research, 30, 140–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Pruitt, D. L., & Erickson, M. T. (1985). The Child Abuse Potential Inventory: A study of concurrent validity. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 104–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. Quinsey, V. L., Arnold, L. S., & Pruesse, M. G. (1980). MMPI profiles of men referred for a pretrial psychiatric assessment as a function of offense type. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 36, 410–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Quinsey, V. L., & Bergersen, S. G. (1976). Instructional control of penile circumference in assessments of sexual preference. Behavior Therapy, 7, 489–493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Quinsey, V. L., & Chaplin, T. C. (1988a). Penile responses of child molesters and normals to descriptions of encounters with children involving sex and violence. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 3, 259–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  233. Quinsey, V. L., & Chaplin, T. C. (1988b). Preventing faking in phallometric assessments of sexual preference. In R. A. Prentky & V. L. Quinsey (Eds.) ,Human sexual aggression: Current perspectives. (Vol528, pp. 49–58). New York: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences.Google Scholar
  234. Quinsey, V. L., Chaplin, T. C, & Carrigan, W. F. (1979). Sexual preferences among incestuous and nonincestuous child molesters. Behavior Therapy, 10, 562–565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Quinsey, V. L., Chaplin, T. C, & Carrigan, W. F. (1980). Biofeedback and signaled punishment in the modification of inappropriate sexual age preferences. Behavior Therapy, 11, 567–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Quinsey, V. L., & Marshall, W. L. (1983). Procedures for reducing inappropriate sexual arousal: An evaluation review. In J. G. Greer & I. R. Stuart (Eds.) ,The sexual aggressor: Current perspectives on treatment. (pp267–289). New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.Google Scholar
  237. Quinsey, V. L., Rice, M. E., Harris, G. T. (1995). Actuarial prediction of sexual recidivism. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 10, 85–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Quinsey, V. L., Steinman, C. M., Bergersen, S. G., & Holmes, T. F. (1975). Penile circumference, skin conductance, and ranking responses of child molesters and ‘normals’ to sexual and nonsexual visual stimuli. Behavior Therapy, 6, 213–219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Rau, T. J., Murphy, W. D., Worley, P. J., Haynes, M. R., & Flanagan, B. (1993, November). History of physical and sexual abuse in adult sexual abusers: Psychometric comparisons. Paper presented at the 12th Annual Research and Treatment Conference of the Association of the Treatment of Sexual Abusers, Boston.Google Scholar
  240. Rice, M. E., Quinsey, V. L., & Harris, G. T. (1991). Sexual recidivism among child molesters released from a maximum security psychiatric institution. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 59, 381–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Rice, S. A. (1929). Contagious bias in the interview. American Journal of Sociology, 35, 420–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Robertson, K. R., & Milner, J. S. (1985). Convergent and discriminant validity of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 86–88.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Robinson, E. A., & Eyberg, S. M. (1981). The dyadic parent-child interactional coding system: Standardization and validation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 245–250.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Robitaille, J., Jones, E., Gold, R. G., Robertson, K. R., & Miner, J. S. (1985). Child abuse potential and authoritarianism. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41, 839–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  245. Rosenberg, N. M., Meyers, S., & Shackleton, N. (1982). The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 472–480.Google Scholar
  246. Russell, D., Peplau, L. A., & Cutrona, C. E. (1980). The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale: Concurrent and discriminant validity evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 39, 472–480.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. Schellenbach, C. J., Monroe, L. D., & Merluzzi, T. V. (1991). The impact of stress on cognitive components of child abuse potential. Journal of Family Violence, 6, 61–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  248. Schneider, C. J. (1982). The Michigan Screening Profile of Parenting. In R. H. Starr, Jr. (Ed.) ,Child abuse prevention: Policy implications(pp. 157–174). Cambridge, MA: Ballinger.Google Scholar
  249. Schneider, C. J., Helfer, R. E., & Pollock, G (1972). The predictive questionnaire: A preliminary report. In C. H. Kempe & R. E. Helfer (Eds.) ,Helping the battered child and his family. (pp271–282). Philadelphia: Lippincott.Google Scholar
  250. Scott, R. L., & Stone, D. A. (1986). MMPI profile constellations in incest families. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 54, 364–368.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Selzer, M. L. (1971). The Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test: The quest for a new diagnostic instrument. American Journal of Psychiatry, 127, 89–94.Google Scholar
  252. Shealy, L., Kalichman, S. C, Henderson, M. C, Szymanowski, D., & McKee, G. (1991). MMPI profile subtypes of incarcerated sex offenders against children. Violence and Victims, 6, 201–212.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. Sheets, D. A. (1992). Implications of research for the designs and implementation of the Texas Risk Assessment Model. In T. Tatara (Ed.) ,Fifth National Roundtable on CPS Risk Assessment. (pp169–186). Washington, DC: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  254. Sheets, D. A. (1996). Caseworkers, computers, and risk assessment: A promising partnership. APSAC Advisor, 9(1), 7–12.Google Scholar
  255. Siefert, K., Thompson, T., Ten-Bensel, R. W., & Hunt, C. (1983). Perinatal stress: A study of factors linked to the risk of parent problems. Health and Social Work, 8, 107–121.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Simkins, L. (1993). Characteristics of sexually repressed child molesters. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 8, 3–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. Simkins, L., Ward, W, Bowman, S., & Rinck, C. M. (1989). The Multiphasic Sex Inventory as a predictor of treatment response in child sexual abusers. Annals of Sex Research, 2, 205–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R., & Lushere, R. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Scale. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  259. Starr, R. H. Jr. (1987). Clinical judgement of abuse-proneness based on parent-child interactions. Child Abuse & Neglect, 11, 87–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. Starr, R. H. Jr. (1988). Physical abuse of children. In in. B. Van Hasselt, R. L. Morrison, & A. S. Bellack (Eds.) ,Handbook of family violence(pp. 119–155). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  261. Starr, R. H., Jr. (1993). Cognitive factors underlying worker decision bias. In T. Tatara (Ed.) ,Sixth national roundtable on CPS risk assessment: Summary of highlights. (pp195–212). Washington: American Public Welfare Association.Google Scholar
  262. Stasiewicz, P. R., & Lisman, S. A. (1989). Effects of infant cries on alcohol consumption in college males at risk for child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 13, 463–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Stermac, L. E., & Segal, Z. V. (1989). Adult sexual contact with children: An examination of cognitive factors. Behavior Therapy, 20, 573–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Straus, M. A. (1979). Measuring intrafamilial conflict and violence: The Conflict Tactics (CT) Scale. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 41, 75–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Straus, M. A. (1993). Measurement instruments in child abuse research. Unpublished manuscript, University of New Hampshire, Durham.Google Scholar
  266. Straus, M. A., & Gelles, R. J. (Eds.). (1990). Physical violence in American families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction.Google Scholar
  267. Stringer, S. A., & La Greca, A. M. (1985). Correlates of child abuse potential. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 13, 217–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. Thomasson, E., Berkovitz, T., Minor, S., Cassle, G., McCord, D., & Miner, J. S. (1981). Evaluation of a family life education program for rural “high risk” families: A research note. Journal of Community Psychology, 9, 246–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. Tuteur, J. M., Ewigman, B. E., Peterson, L., Hosokawa, M. C. (1995). The Maternal Observation Matrix and the Mother-Child Interactional Scale: Brief observational screening instruments for physically abusive mothers. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 24, 55–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. Vaupel, S. G., & Goeke, J. M. (1994). Incest perpetrator MMPI profiles and the variable of offense admission status. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 38, 69–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Wagner, W. G., Aucoin, R., & Johnson, J. T. (1993). Psychologists’ attitudes concerning child sexual abuse: The impact of sex of perpetrator, sex of victim, age of victim, and victim response. Journal of Child Sexual Abuse, 2(2), 61–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Wald, M. S., & Woolverton, M. (1990). Risk assessment: The emperor’s new clothes? Child Welfare, 69, 483–511.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. Walden, T. A., Grisaff, D., & Deitrich-MacLean, G. (1990). Observing interactions of abusive and nonabusive dyads: Information extracted by accurate and inaccurate judges. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 18, 241–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Walters, G. D. (1987). Child sex offenders and rapists in a military prison setting. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 31, 261–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. Wasyliw, O. E., Grossman, L. S., & Haywood, T. W. (1994). Denial of hostility and psychopathology among alleged child molesters. Journal of Personality Assessment, 63, 185–190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Waterman, C. K., & Foss-Goodman, D. (1984). Child molesting: Variables relating to attribution of fault to victims, offenders, and nonparticipating parents. Journal of Sex Research, 20, 329–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. Watson, D., & Friend, R. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluation anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 448–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Wellman, M M. (1993). Child sexual abuse and gender differences: Attitudes and prevalence. Child Abuse & Neglect, 17, 539–547.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  279. Whissell, C, Lewko, J., Carriere, R., & Radford, J. (1990). Test scores and sociodemographic information as predictors of child abuse potential scores in young female adults. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 5, 199–208.Google Scholar
  280. Wolfe, D. A., Edwards, B., Manion, I., & Koverola, C. (1988). Early interventions for parents at risk for child abuse and neglect: A preliminary investigation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 40–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. Wolfe, D.A., Fairbank, J. A., Kelly, J. A., & Bradlyn, A. S. (1983). Child abusive parents’ physiological responses to stressful and nonstressful behavior in children. Behavioral Assessment, 5, 363–371.Google Scholar
  282. Wolfe, D. A., Sandler, J., & Kaufman, K. (1981). A competency-based parent training program for abusive parents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 49, 633–640.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  283. Wormith, J. S. (1985). Some physiological and cognitive aspects of assessing deviant sexual arousal. (Report No. 1985–26.) Ottawa: Ministry of the Solicitor General of Canada.Google Scholar
  284. Wydra, A., Marshall, W. L., Earls, C. M., & Barbaree, H. E. (1983). Identification of cues and control of sexual arousal by rapists. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 21, 469–476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. Yanagida, E. H., & Ching, J. W. J. (1993). MMPI profiles of child abusers. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 49, 569–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joel S. Milner
    • 1
  • William D. Murphy
    • 2
  • Linda A. Valle
    • 1
  • Randi M. Tolliver
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyNorthern Illinois UniversityDeKalbUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of TennesseeMemphisUSA

Personalised recommendations