Advertisement

Case studies

  • J. van der Pligt
  • W. Otten
  • William Leiss
  • Christine Massey
  • Peter M. Wiedemann
  • Carsten Henschel
  • Philip C. R. Gray
  • Peter Borsch
  • Hans Peter Peters
  • Lori Walker
  • Pietro Comba
  • Paolo Vecchia
  • Mariella Martini
  • Bruno Cavalchi
  • Claudio Franzoni
  • Emilio Renna
  • Dawn P. Ives
  • Liliana Cori
  • Annunziata Faustini
  • Laura Settimi
  • Elisabetta Chellini
  • Carla Cerrini
  • Benedetto Terracini
Chapter
Part of the Technology, Risk, and Society book series (RISKGOSO, volume 11)

Abstract

Government mass communication campaigns on the risk of HIV infection and AIDS in European countries during the 1980s and early 1990s.

Keywords

Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Nuclear Energy Risk Communication Total Suspended Particulate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bauman, L.J. & Siegel, K. (1987). Risk perception among gay men of the risk of AIDS associated with their sexual behavior. Journal of applied social psychology, 17: 329–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bennetto, J. (1993). Ignorance at top slowed AIDS war. The Independent on Sunday, 27 June.Google Scholar
  3. Bernard, R-P. (1991). AIDS/HIV by age/gender: global review in 22 panels. AIDS-Forschung (AIFO), 11: 577–593.Google Scholar
  4. Blaxter, M. (1992). ESRC programme on behavioural research into HIV/AIDS. London, Economic and Social Research Council.Google Scholar
  5. Chesney, M.A. (1993). Health psychology in the 21st century: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as a harbinger of things to come. Health psychology, 12, 259–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Wit, J.B.F. et al. (1993a). Increase in unprotected anogenital intercourse among homosexual men. American journal of public health, 83: 1451–1453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. De Wit, J.B.F. et al. (1993b). Why do homosexual men relapse into unsafe sex? Predictors of resumption of unprotected anogenital intercourse with casual partners. AIDS, 7: 1113–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hartgers, C. (1992). HIV risk behavior among injecting drug users in Amsterdam. Amsterdam, Rodopi.Google Scholar
  9. Hulley, S.B. & Hearst, N. (1989). The worldwide epidemiology and prevention of AIDS. In: Mays, V.M. et al., ed. Primary prevention of AIDS. Manbury Park, Sage, pp. 47–71.Google Scholar
  10. International Research Institutes (1993). Werkloosheid en AIDS grootste bedreigingen voor Europa [Unemployment and AIDS are the biggest threats to Europe]. Peilpunten, 5 (November): 4.Google Scholar
  11. Iota (1993). Communication via social networks more effective than via mass media. Iota (Biannual newsletter of the Foundation for Public Information on Science, Technology and the Humanities (Stichting PWT), Utrecht ), Summer 5–6.Google Scholar
  12. May, R. & Anderson, R. (1987). Transmission dynamics of HIV infection. Nature, 326: 137–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Often, W. & van der Pligt, J. (1992). Risk and behavior: the mediating role of risk-appraisal. Acta psychologica, 80: 325–346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. van der Pligt, J. et al. (1993). Perceived risk of AIDS: unrealistic optimism and self-protective action. In: Pryor, J.B. & Reeder, G., ed. The social psychology of HIV infection. Hillsdale, NJ, Erlbaum, pp. 39–58.Google Scholar
  15. Richard, R. & van der Pligt, J. (1991). Factors influencing condom use among adolescents. Journal of community applied social psychology, 1: 105–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Sherr, L. (1990). Fear arousal and AIDS: do shock tactics work? AIDS, 4: 361–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Spears, R. et al. (1992). Framing in terms of “high-risk groups” versus “risky practices” and prognoses of HIV infection. European journal of social psychology, 22: 195–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. US Centers for Disease Control (1981). Pneumocystis pneumonia–Los Angeles. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 30: 250–252.Google Scholar
  19. van der Velde, F. & van der Pligt, J. (1992). Risk perception and behavior: pessimism, realism and optimism about AIDS-related health behavior. Psychology and health, 6: 23–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wellings, K. (1991). Assessing AIDS/HIV preventive strategies in the general population. Lausanne, Institut universitaire de médecine sociale et préventive.Google Scholar
  21. WHO Regional Office for Europe (1991). Global programme on AIDS, Regional Office for Europe: taking up the challenge in the ‘80s. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (unpublished document EUR/ICP/GPA 107 ).Google Scholar
  22. World Health Organization (1993). The HIV/AIDS pandemic: 1993 overview. Geneva, World Health Organization (unpublished document no. WHO/GPA/CNP/EVA/93.1.).Google Scholar
  23. CBRC (Centre for Behavioural Research in Cancer) (1992) Health warnings and contents labelling on tobacco products. Victoria, Australia, CRBC.Google Scholar
  24. Cragg, Ross and Dawson Limited (1990). Health warnings on cigarette and tobacco packs: report on research to inform European standardisation. London, Health Education Authority Research Department, Public Health Division, December.Google Scholar
  25. Department of Health (U.K.) (1992). The health of the nation: a strategy for health in England. London, HMSO, July.Google Scholar
  26. Warner, K.E. (1989). Effects of the anti-smoking campaign: an update; and: Smoking and health: a 25-year perspective. American journal of public health, 79 (12), January: 141–151.Google Scholar
  27. Baram, M. (1991). Rights and duties concerning the availability of environmental risk information to the public. In: Kasperson, R.E. & Stallen, P.J.M., ed. Communicating risks to the public: international perspectives. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Coggi, P.T. (1990). The Commission of the European Communities environmental policy on public information on major accident hazards. In: Gow, H.B.F. & Otway, H., ed. Communicating with the public about major accident hazards. London, Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 21–25.Google Scholar
  29. De Marchi, B. (1990). Assessing people’s information needs about major accident hazards: improving knowledge for a better response. In: Gow, H.B.F., Otway, H., ed. Communicating with the public about major accident hazards. London, Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 389–400.Google Scholar
  30. Dienel, P. (1991). Die Planungszelle. Der Bürger plant seine Umwelt [The planning cell. The citizens plan their environment]. Opladen, Westdeutscher Verlag.Google Scholar
  31. Jupp, A. & Irwin, A. (1990). Audiences, disseminators and major hazard issues: an analysis of recent British case studies. In: Gow, H.B.F. & Otway, H., ed. Communicating with the public about major accident hazards. London, Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 422–428.Google Scholar
  32. Lalo, A. (1990). Informing the public on major technological risks: communication strategies of the Bouches-du-Rhones campaign, April-June 1989. In: Gow, H.B.F. & Otway, H., ed. Communicating with the public about major accident hazards. London, Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 204–231.Google Scholar
  33. Nicolau, J.A.S. (1990). Public information for major industrial accidents. In: Gow, H.B.F. & Otway, H., ed. Communicating with the public about major accident hazards. London, Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 232–245.Google Scholar
  34. Otway, H. & Amendola, A. (1989). Major hazard information policy in the European Community: implications for risk analysis. Risk analysis, 9 (4): 505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Petty, R.E. & Cacioppo, J.T. (1986). Communication and persuasion. Central and peripheral routes to attitude change. New York, Springer Verlag.Google Scholar
  36. Schütz, H. & Wiedemann, P.M. (1995). Implementation of the Seveso directive in Germany — an evaluation of hazardous incident information. Safety science, 18: 203–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Van Eijndhoven, J. & Worrell, C. (1991). Active and passive provision of risk information in the Netherlands. In: Kasperson, R.E. & Stallen, P.J.M., ed. Communicating risks to the public. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers.Google Scholar
  38. Vollono, C. & Marsili, G. (1992). Health risk communication in industrial accidents. Preliminary results of a survey on risk perception. Rome, Laboratorio di Igiene Ambientale, Istituto Superiore di Sanita’.Google Scholar
  39. Weenig, M.W. & Midden, C.J. (1991). Communication network influences on information diffusion and persuasion. Journal of personality and social psychology, 61 (5): 734–742.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Welinder, A.S. (1990). Risk communication in Denmark: experience and consideration for future development. In: Gow, H.B.F. & Otway, H., ed. Communicating with the public about major accident hazards. London, Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 199–203.Google Scholar
  41. Wiedemann, P.M. (1992). Implementing the Seveso-directive in Germany. Zeitschrift fir Chemietechnik, 21 (12): 58–65.Google Scholar
  42. Wiegman, O. et aI. (1990). A joint study of public reactions to an emergency warning about an industrial disaster in France, Greece and the Netherlands. Twente, the Netherlands, University of Twente.Google Scholar
  43. Wynne, B. (1990). Empirical evaluation of public information on major industrial accident hazards. Lancaster, European Commission Joint Research Centre, ISPRA, Lancaster University.Google Scholar
  44. Zwetkoff, C. (1990). Organisational cultures and innovation: safety and communication experts’ opinions about the Seveso directive. In: Gow, H.B.F. & Otway, H., ed. Communicating with the public about major accident hazards. London, Elsevier Applied Science, pp. 348–366.Google Scholar
  45. Allen, R.V. & Jones, T. (1990). Guests of the nation: people of Ireland versus the multinationals. London, Earthscan Publications.Google Scholar
  46. Ashcroft, C. (1994). Chemical waste incineration. In: Proceedings of the Third Annual Conference on Incineration: The Best Practicable Environmental Option, 9–10 February 1994, Manchester, United Kingdom. London, IBC Technical Services, Ltd.Google Scholar
  47. Ball, D.J. et al. (1993). Polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans in the Pontypool environment - the Panteg monitoring project. Final report to the Welsh Office. Norwich, Environmental Risk Assessment Unit, University of East Anglia.Google Scholar
  48. Bartone, R.B. (1987). Incinerators. In: Theodore, L. & Reynolds, J., ed. Introduction to hazardous waste incineration. New York, J. Wiley & Sons, pp. 247–286.Google Scholar
  49. Dempsey, C.R. & Oppelt, E.T. (1993). Incineration of hazardous waste: a critical review update. Air and waste, 43: 25–74.Google Scholar
  50. Department of the Environment (1992). The UK environment. London, H.M.Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  51. Elliott, P. et al. (1992). Cancer of the larynx and lung near incinerators of waste solvents and oils in Britain. In: Elliott, P. et al., ed. Geographical and environmental epidemiology: methods for small area studies. Oxford, Oxford University Press, pp. 359–367.Google Scholar
  52. ENDS (Environmental Data Services Ltd.) (1993). Bolsover dioxin victims accept £200,000 from Coalite. ENDS report, 226 (November): 4.Google Scholar
  53. Faragô, K. et al. (1989). Not in my town: conflicting views on the siting of a hazardous waste incinerator. Risk analysis, 9 (4): 463–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Gatrell, A.C. & Lovett, A.A. (1992). Burning questions: incineration of wastes and implications for public health. In: Clark, M. et al., ed. Waste location: some geographical perspectives. London, Routledge.Google Scholar
  55. Government of the United Kingdom (1990). This common inheritance: Britain’s environmental strategy. London, H.M.Stationery Office (Cm 1200 ).Google Scholar
  56. Gray, P.C.R. (1991). The public reaction to a proposed toxic waste incinerator in Derry, Northern Ireland. MSc Thesis. London, Imperial College Centre for Environmental Technology.Google Scholar
  57. Gray, P.C.R. (1995). Waste incineration: controversy and risk communication. European review of applied psychology, 45 (1): 29–34.Google Scholar
  58. Greenpeace (1991). Let the Earth breathe…stop incineration! London, Greenpeace International, p. 11.Google Scholar
  59. Harris, W.E. (1993). Siting a hazardous waste facility: a success story in retrospect. Risk analysis, 13 (4): 3–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hattemer-Frey, H.A. & Travis, C.C. (1991). An overview of food chain impacts from municipal waste combustion. In: Travis, C.C., ed. Municipal waste incineration risk assessment. New York, Plenum Press, pp. 87–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Health and Safety Executive (1987). The tolerability of risk from nuclear power stations. London, Health and Safety Executive.Google Scholar
  62. Lenihan, J. (1985). Bonnybridge/Denny morbidity review. Edinburgh, Scottish Home and Health Department.Google Scholar
  63. Levin, A. et al. (1991). Comparative analysis of health risk assessments for municipal waste combustors. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 41: 20–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. McQuaid-Cook, J. & Simpson, K. (1986). Siting a fully integrated waste management facility in Alberta. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 36 (9): 1031–1036.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Oppelt, E. T. (1987). Incineration of hazardous waste: a critical review. Journal of the Air Pollution Control Association, 37 (5): 558–586.Google Scholar
  66. Ove Arup Partnership et al. (1991). Beckton sewage sludge incinerator: environmental statement. London, Thames Water Utilities Ltd.Google Scholar
  67. Peltu, M. (1985). The role of communications media. In: Otway, H. & Peltu, M., ed. Regulating industrial risks. London, Butterworths, pp. 128–148.Google Scholar
  68. Petts, J. (1992). Incineration risk perceptions and public concern: experience in the UK improving risk communication. Waste management and research, 10: 169–182.Google Scholar
  69. Renn, O. (1992). Risk communication: towards a rational discourse with the public. Journal of hazardous materials, 29: 465–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Royal Commission on Environmental Pollution (1993). Seventeenth report: incineration of waste. London, H.M.Stationery Office (Cm 2181 ).Google Scholar
  71. Rybarkiewicz, A. (1995). Solid waste management in Poland. Warmer bulletin, No. 44 (February).Google Scholar
  72. Saunders, R.C. (1990). Together we made it happen. In: Proceedings: 12th Canadian Waste Management Conference. Ottawa, Environment Canada, pp. 43–48.Google Scholar
  73. Sloan, W.M. (1993). Site selection for new hazardous waste facilities. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 46 ).Google Scholar
  74. Welsh Affairs Committee (1990). Second report, session 1989–90. Rechem International Limited: incineration plant, Pontypool. London, H.M.Stationery Office (House of Commons Paper ITC 80 ).Google Scholar
  75. Welsh Office (1985). The incidence of congenital malformations in Wales, with special reference to the District of Torfaen, Gwent. Cardiff, Welsh Office.Google Scholar
  76. White, D. & McGuire, G. (1990). Goose Bay Mobile PCB incineration project. In: Proceedings: 12th Canadian Waste Management Conference. Ottawa, Environment Canada, pp. 33–41.Google Scholar
  77. Woodfield, M. (1987). The environmental impact of refuse incineration in the UK. Report to the Department of the Environment. Stevenage, UK, Warren Spring Laboratory.Google Scholar
  78. World Resource Foundation (1995). Information sheet on the World Resource Foundation. Warmer bulletin, No. 44 (February).Google Scholar
  79. Bachner, D. et al. (1992). Radiologische Erfassung, Untersuchung und Bewertung bergbaulicher Altlasten [Radiological comprehension, analysis and evaluation of disposal sites for mining waste]. Cologne, Gesellschaft für Anlage-und Reaktorsicherheit.Google Scholar
  80. Cohen, B. (1983). Nuclear journalism: lies, damned lies, and news reports. Policy review, 26: 70–74.Google Scholar
  81. Deutsches Atomforum (1991). Allensbach-Umfrage zur Kernenergie: Große Mehrheit fur Weiterbetrieb der Kernkraftwerke [Allensbach survey on nuclear power: a large majority favours the continued operation of nuclear power plants]. Bonn, Deutsches Atomforum (Presse Info 14/91).Google Scholar
  82. Downs, A. (1972). Up and down with ecology–the “issue-attention cycle”. The public interest, 28: 38–50.Google Scholar
  83. Droge, F. & Wilkens, A. (1991). Populärer Fortschritt. 150 Jahre Technikberichterstattung in deutschen illustrierten Zeitschriften [Popular progress. 150 years of reporting on technology in illustrated German periodicals]. Munster, Verlag WestfalischesGoogle Scholar
  84. Dampfboot. EPRI (1979). Status on the EPRI fuel cycle accident risk assessment. Palo Alto, CA, Electric Power Research Institute.Google Scholar
  85. Gesellschaft für Reaktorsicherheit (1979). Deutsche Risikostudie Kernkraftwerke, Hauptband [German risk study on nuclear power plants, main volume]. Cologne, TÜV Rheinland.Google Scholar
  86. Gesellschaft für Reaktorsicherheit (1989). Deutsche Risikostudie Kernkraftwerke, Phase B [German risk study on nuclear power plants, phase B. A comprehensive presentation]. Cologne, Gesellschaft fir Reaktorsicherheit (GRS-72).Google Scholar
  87. Gofman, J.W. (1989). Das Krebsrisiko unter den Überlebenden der Atombombenabwürfe aufgrund der “alten” und “neuen” Dosimetrieberechnungen [The cancer risk of survivors of atomic blasts: an assessment with old and new dosimetric calculation]. In: Köhnlein, W. et al., ed. Die Wirkung niedriger Strahlendosen [The effects of low-level radiation exposure]. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, pp. 57–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Hennen, L. & Peters, H.P. (1990). “Tschernobyl” in der öffentlichen Meinung der Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Risikowahrnehmung, politische Einstellungen und Informationsbewertung [“Chernobyl” in the public opinion in the Federal Republic of Germany. Risk perception, political attitudes and information evaluation]. Jülich, Forschungszentrum Jülich (KFA) (Jül-Spez-551).Google Scholar
  89. ICRP (1991). Recommendations of the ICRP. Annals of the ICRP, 21: No. 1–3 (Publication 60).Google Scholar
  90. Institut für Demoskopie Allensbach (1990). Natur-Umwelt-Barometer. VII. Welle: Thema “Kernenergie” [Nature and environmental barometer. VII. Wave: the issue of nuclear power]. Allensbach, Institut fir Demoskopie Allensbach.Google Scholar
  91. Kepplinger, H.M. (1988). Die Kernenergie in der Presse. Eine Analyse zum Einfluß subjektiver Faktoren auf die Konstruktion von Realität [Nuclear power in the mass media. An analysis of the effect of subjective factors on the construction of reality]. Kölner Zeitschrift für Soziologie und Sozialpsychologie, 40 (4): 640–658.Google Scholar
  92. Keren, G. & Eijkelhof, H. (1991). Prior knowledge and risk communication: the case of nuclear radiation and x-rays. In: Kasperson, R.E. & Stallen, P.J.M., ed. Communicating risks to the public. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 145–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Kollert, R. (1993). Systematische Unterbewertung von Katastrophenrisiken — zur Anwendung des Risikobegriffs in nuklearen Risikoanalysen [Systematic underassessment of catastrophic risks — on the use of the notion of “risk” in nuclear risk assessments]. In: Bechmann, G., ed. Risiko und Gesellschaft [Risk and society]. Opladen, Westdeutscher Verlag, pp. 25–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Luckey, T.D. (1982). Physiological benefits from low levels of ionising radiation. Health physics, 43: 771–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Mazur, A. (1973). Disputes between experts. Minerva, 11 (2): 243–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Mazur, A. (1985). Bias in risk—benefit analysis. Technology in society, 7 (1): 25–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Nelkin, D. & Pollak, M. (1981). A pregnant pause: the European response to the Three Mile Island accident. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 365: 186–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Peters, H.P. (1991a). Risiko-Kommunikation: Kernenergie [Risk communication: nuclear power]. In: Jungermann, H. et al., ed. Risikokontroversen. Konzepte, Konflikte, Kommunikation [Risk controversies. Concepts, conflicts, communication]. Berlin, Springer-Verlag, pp. 62–159.Google Scholar
  99. Peters, H.P. (1991b). Durch Risikokommunikation zur Technikakzeptanz? Die Konstruktion von Risiko’wirklichkeiten’ durch Experten, Gegenexperten und Öffentlichkeit [The acceptance of technology through risk communication? The construction of risk “realities” by experts, counter-experts and the public]. In: Kruger, J. & Ruß-Kohl, S., ed. Risikokommunikation. Technikakzeptanz, Medien und Kommunikationsrisiken [Risk communication, acceptance of technology, the mass media and the risks of communication]. Berlin, Edition Sigma, pp. 11–66.Google Scholar
  100. Peters, H.P. (1992). The credibility of information sources in West Germany after the Chernobyl disaster. Public understanding of science, 1 (3): 325–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Peters, H.P. & Hennen, L. (1989). Einstellung der Bevölkerung zur Kernenergie nach Tschernobyl. Ein demoskopischer Rückblick [Public attitudes towards nuclear power after Chernobyl. A review of surveys]. Energiewirtschaftliche Tagesfragen, 39 (6): 376–382.Google Scholar
  102. Radkau, J. (1989). Sicherheitsphilosophien in der Geschichte der bundesdeutschen Atomwirtschaft [Safety philosophies in the history of the nuclear industry in the Federal Republic of Germany]. In: Gessenharter, W. & Fröchling, H., ed. Atomwirtschaft und innere Sicherheit [Nuclear power and domestic safety]. Baden-Baden, Nomos, pp. 91–106.Google Scholar
  103. Renn, O. (1980). Die sanfte Revolution. Zukunft ohne Zwang?[The soft revolution. A future without force?]. Essen, Girardet.Google Scholar
  104. Renn, O. (1984). Risikowahrnehmung der Kernenergie [Risk perception of nuclear power]. Frankfurt, Campus.Google Scholar
  105. Renn, O. & Levine, D. (1991). Credibility and trust in risk communication. In: Kasperson, R.E. & Stallen, P.J.M., ed. Communicating risks to the public. Dordrecht, Kluwer Academic Publishers, pp. 175–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rothman, S. & Lichter, S.R. (1982). The nuclear energy debate: scientists, the media, and the public. Public opinion, August/September, pp. 47–52.Google Scholar
  107. Rowan, K.E. (1991). Goals, obstacles, and strategies in risk communication: a problem-solving approach to improve communication about risks. Journal of applied communication research, 19: 300–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Schultze, R.-0. (1987). Die Bundestagswahl 1987 — eine Bestätigung des Wandels [The 1987 election for the Federal Parliament — a confirmation of change]. Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte, 12: 3–17.Google Scholar
  109. United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (1988). Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation. New York, United Nations.Google Scholar
  110. US National Research Council, Committee on the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation V (1990). Health effects on populations of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  111. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1975). Reactor safety study. An assessment of accident risks in U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Washington, DC, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (WASH-1400).Google Scholar
  112. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1978). Risk assessment review group report to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Washington, DC, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.Google Scholar
  113. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (1990). Severe accident risks. An assessment for five U.S. nuclear power plants. Final summary report, Vol. 1–3. Washington, DC, US Nuclear Regulatory Commission.Google Scholar
  114. Doll, R. (1992). Risks from radon. In: O’Riordan, M.C. & Miles, J.C.H., ed. Radon 2000: proceedings of a conference held in London March 26–27, 1992. Radiation protection dosimetry, 42 (3): 149–154.Google Scholar
  115. Krewski, D. et al. (1989). Managing environmental radon risks: a Canadian perspective. In: Friej, L., ed. Management of risk from genotoxic substances in the environment. Stockholm, Swedish National Chemicals Inspectorate, pp. 242–257.Google Scholar
  116. NRPB (1992). Human exposure to radon in homes. Documents of the NRPB, 1 (1): 19–32.Google Scholar
  117. Sandman, P. (1989). Hazard versus outrage: the case of radon, In: Covello, V. et al., ed. Effective risk communication: the role and responsibility of government and non-government organizations. New York, Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  118. Sjöberg, L. (1989). Radon risks: attitudes, perceptions, and actions. Washington, DC, Economic Analysis Division, Office of Policy, Planning, and Evaluation, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA–230–04–89–049).Google Scholar
  119. Weinstein, N.D. (1988). The precaution adoption process. Health psychology, 7: 355–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. WHO European Centre for Environment and Health (1995). Concern for Europe’s tomorrow. Stuttgart, Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft.Google Scholar
  121. Feychting, M. & Ahlbom, A. (1993). Magnetic fields and cancer in children residing near Swedish high-voltage power lines. American journal of epidemiology, 138: 467–481.Google Scholar
  122. Floderus, B. et al. (1993). Occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields in relation to leukemia and brain tumors: a case-control study in Sweden. Cancer causes and control, 4: 465–476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Florig, H.K. (1992). Containing the costs of the EMF problem. Science, 257(5069, 24 July): 468–469, 488, 490–492Google Scholar
  124. Health Council of the Netherlands (1992). Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields and health. The Hague, Health Council of the Netherlands (Report 1992/07).Google Scholar
  125. International Non-ionizing Radiation Committee, International Radiation Protection Association (1990). Interim guidelines on limits of exposure to 50/60 Hz electric and magnetic fields. Health physics, 58(1): 113–122. Microwave news (1992). 12 (5): 1.Google Scholar
  126. Morgan, M.G. (1989). Electric and magnetic fields from 60 hertz electric power: what do we know about possible health risks? Pittsburgh, PA, Department of Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University.Google Scholar
  127. National Radiological Protection Board (1992). Electromagnetic fields and the risk of cancer. Report of an advisory group on non-ionising radiation. Documents of the NRPB, 3 (1): 1–138.Google Scholar
  128. Poole, C. & Trichopoulos, D. (1991). Extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields and cancer. Cancer causes and control, 2: 267–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Repacholi, M.H. (1990). Cancer from exposure to 50/60 Hz electric and magnetic fields — a major scientific debate. Australasian physical engineering sciences in medicine, 13 (1): 417.Google Scholar
  130. Savitz, D.A. & Calle, E.E. (1987). Leukemia and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields: review of epidemiological surveys. Journal of occupational medicine, 29: 47–51.Google Scholar
  131. Savitz, D.A. et al. (1988). Case-control study of childhood cancer and exposure to 60-Hz magnetic fields. American journal of epidemiology, 128: 21–38.Google Scholar
  132. US Environmental Protection Agency (1990). Evaluation of the potential carcinogenicity of electromagnetic fields. Washington, DC, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development (External Review Draft, EPA/600/6–90/005B).Google Scholar
  133. US Environmental Protection Agency (1991). Final report of US EPA Science Advisory Board, Radiation Advisory Committee, Non-ionizing Electric and Magnetic Fields Subcommittee. Washington, DC, US Environmental Protection Agency.Google Scholar
  134. Wartenberg, D. & Greenberg, M. (1992). Epidemiology, the press and the EMF controversy. Public understanding of science, 1 (4): 383–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Wertheimer, N. & Leeper, E. (1979). Electrical wiring configurations and childhood cancer. American journal of epidemiology, 109: 273–284.Google Scholar
  136. Wilson, B.W. et al. (1990). Extremely low frequency electromagnetic fields: the question of cancer. Columbus, OH, Batelle Press.Google Scholar
  137. Burn, J. (1992). Smog. European bulletin on environment and health, 1 (2): 3–6.Google Scholar
  138. Cavalchi, B. et al. (1992). Mappe di qualità dell’aria [Map of air quality]. Inquinamento, 8: 52–55.Google Scholar
  139. WHO Regional Office for Europe (1987). Air quality guidelines for Europe. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 23 ).Google Scholar
  140. United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (1994). Convention on long-range transboundary air pollution. Geneva, Environment and Human Settlements Division (leaflet ECE/ENHS/NONE/94/14, June 1994).Google Scholar
  141. Advisory Council for Applied Research Development (1982). The food industry and technology. London, H.M. Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  142. Baird-Parker, A.C. (1990). Foodborne illness: foodborne salmonellosis. The lancet, 336: 1231–1235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Bills, D.D. & Kung, S.D. (1990). Biotechnology and food safety. Boston, Butterworth-Heinemann.Google Scholar
  144. Cannon, G. (1987). The politics offood. London, Century Hutchinson.Google Scholar
  145. Davison, C. (1989). Eggs and the sceptical eater. New scientist, 121 (11 March 1989): 45–49.Google Scholar
  146. Food Safety Act (1990). London, H.M. Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  147. Ghazi, P. & McKie, R. (1993). Salmonella cases soar as slaughter policy proves useless. The Observer,28 February.Google Scholar
  148. Hall, R.L. (1971). Information, confidence and sanity in the food services. The flavour industry, August, pp. 455–459.Google Scholar
  149. House of Commons Agriculture Committee (1989). Salmonella in eggs. First report, session 1988–89. Volume I, Report and proceedings of the committee (HC 108-I); Volume II, Minutes of evidence (HC 108-II). London, H.M. Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  150. Lee, K. (1989). Food neophobia: major causes and treatments. Food technology, 43 (December): 62–73.Google Scholar
  151. London Food Commission (1988). Food adulteration and bow to beat it. London, Unwin.Google Scholar
  152. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1990a). Risk assessment and risk management in food safety. London, MAFF Consumer Panel Secretariat (Report CP (90) 4/6).Google Scholar
  153. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (1990b). Consumer panel: suggested working methods. London, MAFF (Report CP (90) 1/1).Google Scholar
  154. North, R. & Gorman, T. (1990). Chickengate: an independent analysis of the Salmonella in eggs scare. London, IEA Health and Welfare Unit, Institute of Economic Affairs.Google Scholar
  155. Sandman, P.M. (1989). Hazard versus outrage in the public perception of risk. In: Covello, V.T. et al., ed. Effective risk communication: the role and responsibility of government and non-government organizations. New York, Plenum Press, pp. 45–49.Google Scholar
  156. Smith, M. (1991). From policy community to issue network: Salmonella in eggs and the new politics of food. Public administration, 69: 235–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Soby, B.A. et al. (1993). Integrating public and scientific judgements into a tool kit for managing food-related risks, stage 1: literature review and feasibility study. Produced for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Norwich, Environmental Risk Assessment Unit, University of East Anglia.Google Scholar
  158. Sparks, P. & Shepherd, R. (1991). A review of risk perception research: implications for food safety issues. A report Produced for the Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food. Reading, AFRC Institute of Food Research.Google Scholar
  159. St. Louis, M.E. et al. (1988). The emergence of grade A eggs as a major source of Salmonella enteritidis infections. New implications for the control of salmonellosis. Journal of the American Medical Association, 259 (14): 2103–2107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Slovic, P. et al. (1980). Perceived risk. In: Schwing, R.C. & Albers, W.A. ed. Societal risk assessment: how safe is safe enough? New York, Plenum.Google Scholar
  161. Wilson, R. & Crouch, E.A.C. (1987). Risk assessment and comparisons: an introduction. Science, 236: 267–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Blair, A. et al. (1990). The effects of pesticides on human health. Princeton, NJ, Princeton Scientific Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  163. Donna, A. et al. (1984). Ovarian mesothelial tumors and herbicides: a case control study. Carcinogenesis, 5: 941–942.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Donna, A. et al. (1989). Triazine herbicides and ovarian epithelial neoplasms. Scandinavian journal of work, environment and health, 15: 47–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (1986). International code of conduct on the distribution and use of pesticides. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.Google Scholar
  166. Faustini, A. et al. (1992). Monitoraggio delle colinesterasi in lavoratori agricoli e commercianti esposti ad esteri fosforici e carbammati [Monitoring of cholinesterase levels in agricultural workers and vendors exposed to carbamates and organophosphate pesticides]. Medicina del lavoro, 83 (2): 135–145.Google Scholar
  167. Hayes, W.J. Jr. & Laws, E.R. Jr., ed. (1991). Handbook of pesticide toxicology. San Diego, Academy Press.Google Scholar
  168. Hoar, S.K. et al. (1986). Agricultural herbicide use and risk of lymphoma and soft-tissue sarcoma. Journal of the American Medical Association, 256: 1141–1147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. International Agency for Research on Cancer (1986). Some halogenated hydrocarbons and pesticides exposures. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, 41: 1–434.Google Scholar
  170. International Agency for Research on Cancer (1991). Occupational exposures in insecticide application, and some pesticides. IARC monographs on the evaluation of the carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, 53: 1–612.Google Scholar
  171. Kurtz, P.J. et al. (1989). Pesticides. In: Hayes, W.J. Jr., ed. Principles and methods of toxicology. 2nd ed. New York, Raven Press, pp. 137–167.Google Scholar
  172. Legambiente (previously Lega per L’Ambiente) (1986). Report on the state of drinking water in Italy. Rome, Legambiente.Google Scholar
  173. Lotti, M. (1986). Biological monitoring for organophosphate induced delayed polyneuropathy. Toxicology letters, 33: 167–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Maroni, M. et al. (1986). The WHO-UNEP epidemiological study on the health effects of exposure to organophosphorus pesticides. Toxicology letters, 33: 115–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Namba, T. et al. (1971). Poisoning due to organophosphate insecticide: acute and chronic manifestation. American journal of medicine, 50: 475–492.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Salem, H. & Olajos, E.J. (1988). Review of pesticides: chemistry, uses and toxicology. Toxicology and industrial health, 4: 291–321.Google Scholar
  177. WHO (1990). Public health impact of pesticides used in agriculture. Geneva, World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  178. WHO Regional Office for Europe (1987). Drinking-water quality: guidelines for selected herbicides. Reports on two WHO meetings. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (unpublished document, Environmental Health Series, No. 27 ).Google Scholar
  179. Zielhuis, R.L. (1972). Epidemiological toxicology of pesticides exposure. Report of an international workshop. Archives of environmental health, 25: 399–405.Google Scholar
  180. Baker, F. (1990). Risk communication about environmental hazards. Journal of public health policy, 11: 341–359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Bateson, G. (1984). Mind and nature, a necessary unity. New York, Bantam.Google Scholar
  182. Bignon, J. (1989). Mineral fibres in the non-occupational environment. In: Bignon, J. et al., ed. Non-occupational exposure to mineral fibres. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp. 3–29 (IARC Scientific Publications, No. 90 ).Google Scholar
  183. Carnevale, F. & Chellini, E., ed. (1992). Amianto: miracoli, virtù, vizi [Asbestos: miracles, virtues, vices]. Florence, Editoriale Tosca.Google Scholar
  184. Chellini, E. et al. (1992). Pleural malignant mesothelioma in Tuscany, Italy (1970–1988). II. Identification of occupational exposure to asbestos. American journal of industrial medicine, 21: 577–585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Commins, B.T. (1989). Estimations of risk from environmental asbestos in perspective. In: Bignon, J. et al., ed. Non-occupational exposure to mineral fibres. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp. 476–485 (IARC Scientific Publications, No. 90 ).Google Scholar
  186. DHHS Working Group (1987). Report on cancer risks associated with the ingestion of asbestos. Environmental health perspectives, 72: 253–265.Google Scholar
  187. International Agency for Research on Cancer (1987). Overall evaluations of carcinogenicity: an updating of IARC monographs, Volumes 1–42. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk of chemicals to humans, Supplement 7: 1–440.Google Scholar
  188. International Agency for Research on Cancer (1988). Man-made mineral fibres and radon. IARC monographs on the evaluation of carcinogenic risk to humans, 43: 1–300.Google Scholar
  189. Lilienfeld, D.E. & Engin, M.S. (1991). The silence: the asbestos industry and early occupational cancer research–a case study. American journal of public health, 81: 791–800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Mancuso, T.F. (1988). Relative risk of mesothelioma among railroad machinists exposed to chrysotile. American journal of industrial medicine, 13: 639–657.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. McDonald, J.C. & McDonald, A.D. (1987). Epidemiology of asbestos-related lung cancer. In: Antman, K. & Aisner, J., ed. Asbestos-related malignancy. Orlando, FL, Grune & Stratton, pp. 57–79.Google Scholar
  192. Merler, E. (1992). La presenza dell’amianto nei settori produttivi della Toscana [The presence of asbestos in occupational activities in Tuscany]. In: Carnevale, F. & Chellini, E., ed. Amianto: miracoli, virtù, vizi [Asbestos: miracles, virtues, vices]. Florence, Editoriale Tosca, pp. 67–79.Google Scholar
  193. Merler, E. & Chellini, E. (1992). Epidemiologia dei tumori primitivi della pleura [Epidemiology of primary pleural cancer]. Annali Istituto Superiore di Sanità, 28: 133–146.Google Scholar
  194. Modolo, A.M. & Seppilli, A. (1981). Educazione sanitaria, la partecipazione e la difesa della salute [Health education, participation and health protection]. Rome, Il Pensiero Scientifico Editore.Google Scholar
  195. Mossman, B.T. et al. (1990). Asbestos: scientific developments and implications to public policy. Science, 247: 294–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Murray, R. (1990). Asbestos: a chronology of its origins and health effects. British journal of industrial medicine, 47: 361–365.Google Scholar
  197. National Research Council (1989). Improving risk communication. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
  198. Nicholson, W.J. et al. (1982). Occupational exposure to asbestos: population at risk and projected mortality, 1980–2030. American journal of industrial medicine, 3: 259–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. Parkin, D.M. et al., ed. (1992). Cancer incidence in five continents. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC Scientific Publications, No. 120 ).Google Scholar
  200. Peto, J. (1989). Fibre carcinogenesis and environmental hazards. In: Bignon, J. et al., ed. Non-occupational exposure to mineral fibres. Lyon, International Agency for Research on Cancer, pp. 457–470 (IARC Scientific Publications, No. 90 ).Google Scholar
  201. Rosato, D.V. (1959). Asbestos: its industrial applications. New York, Reinhold.Google Scholar
  202. Saracci, R. (1977). Asbestos in lung cancer: an analysis of the epidemiological evidence on the asbestos-smoking interaction. International journal of cancer, 20: 323–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Virta, R.L. (1988). Asbestos. In: Minerals yearbook 1988. Washington, D.C., US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines.Google Scholar
  204. Wagner, J.C., ed. (1987). Accomplishments in oncology: the biological effects of chrysotile. Philadelphia, J.P. Lippincott.Google Scholar
  205. Wagner, J.C. et al. (1960). Diffuse pleural mesothelioma and asbestos exposure in the North Western Cape Province. British journal of industrial medicine, 17: 260–271.Google Scholar
  206. Elliott, P. (1992). Data requirements and methods for analysing spatial patterns of disease in small areas. In: Data requirements and methods for analysing spatial patterns of disease in small areas. Extended summaries from a WHO consultation. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, pp. 20–24 (unpublished document EUR/ICP/CEH 087).Google Scholar
  207. Fiore, B.J. et al. (1990). Public health response to reports of clusters: state health department response to disease cluster reports: a protocol for investigation. American journal of epidemiology, 132: 14–22.Google Scholar
  208. Hill, A.B. (1965). The environment and disease: association of causation? Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, 58: 295–300.Google Scholar
  209. Landringan, P.J. & Miller, B. (1983). The Arjenyattah epidemic. Home interview data and toxicological aspects. The lancet, 2: 1474–1476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Magnani, C. et al. (1991). Mesothelioma and non-occupational environmental exposure to asbestos (letter). The lancet, 338: 949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. McKay, F.S. (1933). Mottled enamel: The prevention of its further production through a change of the water supply at Oakley, Idaho. Journal of the American Medical Association, 20: 1137–1149.Google Scholar
  212. Modan, B. et al. (1983). The Arjenyattah epidemic. A mass phenomenon. spread and triggering factors. The lancet, 2: 1472–1474.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. Rothman, K.J. (1990). Keynote presentation: a sobering start for the cluster busters’ conference. American journal of epidemiology, 132: S6 - S13.Google Scholar
  214. Thompson, I.E. (1988). Fundamental ethical principles in health care. In: Phillips, C., ed. Logic in medicine. London, British Medical Journal, pp. 89–104.Google Scholar
  215. Thomsen, I. (1992). Population data for small area studies. In: Data requirements and methods for analysing spatial patterns of disease in small areas. Extended summaries from a WHO consultation. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, pp. 10–14 (unpublished document EUR/ICP/CEH 087).Google Scholar
  216. US Centers for Disease Control (1990). Guidelines for investigating clusters of health events. Morbidity and mortality weekly report, 39 (27 July): 1–23.Google Scholar
  217. WHO Regional Office for Europe (1984). Toxic oil syndrome: mass food poisoning in Spain. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe.Google Scholar
  218. WHO Regional Office for Europe (1992a). Data requirements and methods for analysing spatial patterns of disease in small areas. Extended summaries from a WHO consultation. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, (unpublished document EUR/ICP/CEH 087 ).Google Scholar
  219. WHO Regional Office for Europe (1992b). Toxic oil syndrome: current knowledge and future perspectives. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe (WHO Regional Publications, European Series, No. 42 ).Google Scholar
  220. Zapponi, G.A. et al. (1992). Factors which influence public reaction to environmental risk: some past experiences in Italy. In: Ball, D.J. & Stern, R.M., ed. Risk communication: dealing with the spectrum of environment and health risks in Europe. Report of a WHO consultation. Norwich, Environmental Risk Assessment Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia (Research Report No. 11 ).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. van der Pligt
  • W. Otten
  • William Leiss
  • Christine Massey
  • Peter M. Wiedemann
  • Carsten Henschel
  • Philip C. R. Gray
  • Peter Borsch
  • Hans Peter Peters
  • Lori Walker
  • Pietro Comba
  • Paolo Vecchia
  • Mariella Martini
  • Bruno Cavalchi
  • Claudio Franzoni
  • Emilio Renna
  • Dawn P. Ives
  • Liliana Cori
  • Annunziata Faustini
  • Laura Settimi
  • Elisabetta Chellini
  • Carla Cerrini
  • Benedetto Terracini

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations