Advertisement

Tropical Agroecology and Conservation Ecology: Two Paths Toward Sustainable Development

  • C. Ron Carroll
  • Anne M. Dix
  • James S. Kettler
Chapter

Abstract

The amount of land that is abandoned or severely degraded is large and increasing, with especially profound implicatons for conservation in the tropics. In particular, approximately one-half of the area of tropical forest lost each year expands the base of productive agriculture, whereas the other half simply replaces agricultural land that is worn out and abandoned (Houghton 1994). Consequently, if tropical agriculture were sustainable, the “...total agricultural area could continue to grow at current rates while, at the same time, rates of deforestation could be reduced by approximately 50%” (Houghton 1994, p. 311). Clearly, for the tropics at least, sustainable agriculture is a necessary precondition for the conservation of biodiversity (see also Hoffman and Carroll 1995).

Keywords

Fallow Period Chicken Manure Conservation Ecology Bean Production Maize Stover 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literature Cited

  1. Bellows, B. 1992. Sustainability of steep land bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) farming in Costa Rica: an agronomic and socio-economic assessment. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Florida, Gainesville.Google Scholar
  2. Bentley, J.W. and K.L. Andrews 1991. Pests, peasants and publications: anthropological and entomological views of an integrated pest management program for small-scale Honduran farmers. Human Organization 50:113–123.Google Scholar
  3. Bojo, J.P. 1991. Economics and land degradation. Ambio 10:75–79.Google Scholar
  4. Bunch, R. 1994. The potential of slash/mulch for relieving poverty and environmental degradation. In Slash/Mulch: How Farmers Use It and What Researchers Know About It, eds. H.D. Thurston, M. Smith, G. Abawi, and S. Kearl. Ithaca, NY: Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development, Cornell University.Google Scholar
  5. Carriere, J. 1991. The crisis in Costa Rica: An ecological perspective. In Environment and Development in Latin America: The politics of sustainability, eds. D. Goodman and M. Redclift. New York: Manchester University Press.Google Scholar
  6. Carroll, C.R., J.H. Vandermeer, and P.M. Rossett, eds. 1990. Agroecology. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  7. den Biggelaar, C. 1991. Farming Systems Development: Synthesizing Indigenous and Scientific Knowledge Systems. Agriculture and Human Values 8:25–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dix, A.M. 1995. IPM in non-traditional export agriculture in Guatemala: the case of Chilasco, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. XIX International Congress, Latin American Studies Association, Washington D.C., September 28–30 1995 (proceedings in press).Google Scholar
  9. Dix, A.M. and C.R. Carroll. 1995. IPM in non-traditional export agriculture in Guatemala: the case of Chilasco, Baja Verapaz, Guatemala. IPM CRSP Working Paper 95–4, IPM CRSP, Office of International Research and Development, Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA 24061–0334.Google Scholar
  10. Dix, A.M., C.R. Carroll, M.W. Dix, and G. Dal Bosco. 1995. Corn stalks influence patchy distribution of white grubs in broccoli fields. IPM CRSP Working Paper 95–5, IPM CRSP, Office of International Research and Development, Virginia Tech University, Blacksburg, VA 24061–0334.Google Scholar
  11. Duncan, C. 1991. Agriculture, export diversification, and the environment in Central America. In Modernization and stagnation: Latin American agriculture into the 1990’s, eds. M.J. Twomey and A. Helwedge. New York: Greenwood Press.,Google Scholar
  12. Fujisaka, S. 1992. Farmer knowledge and sustainability in rice-farming systems: Blending science and indigenous innovation. In Diversity, Farmer Knowledge, and Sustainability, eds. J.L. Moock and R.E. Rhoades. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Garst, R. and R. Barry. 1990. Feeding the crisis: U.S. food aid and farm policy in Central America. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  14. GEXPRONT 1994. Bases para la elaboracion de una politica de desarrollo economico atraves de las exportaciones. Guatemala, Mayo de 1994 (Authors’ note: GEXPRONT is the growers association that promotes non-traditional export crops and offers technical help on production practices.)Google Scholar
  15. Hoffman, C.A. and C.R. Carroll. 1995. Can we sustain the biological basis of agriculture? Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 26:69–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Houghton R.A. 1994. The worldwide extent of land-use change. BioScience 44:305–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kettler, J.S. 1995a. A sustainable strategy for fragile lands: Fallow enrichment of a traditional slashmulch system in Coto Brus, Costa Rica. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.Google Scholar
  18. Kettler, J.S. 1995b. A new insect pest for Erythrina peoppigiana in Costa Rica. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Association Research Reports 13:51–53.Google Scholar
  19. Kettler, J.S. 1996. Weeds in the traditional slash/mulch practice of frijol tapado : Indigenous characterization and ecological implications. Weed Research (in press).Google Scholar
  20. Molnar, J.J., P.A. Duffy, K.A. Cummins, and E. Van Santan. 1992. Agricultural science and agricultural counterculture: Paradigms in search of a future. Rural Sociology 57: 83–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mucia, M. 1994. Sostenibilidad Social: La Experiencia de los Productores de Patzun, Chimaltenango. In Sostenibilidad de la produccion agricola no-tradicional de exportacion por pequenos productores en Guatemala, 6–9. Seminario-Taller en Antigua Guatemala. 20–22 de Septiembre 1993.Google Scholar
  22. O’Brien, W.E. and C.B. Flora. 1992. Selling appropriate development vs. selling-out rural communities: empowerment and control in indigenous knowledge discourse. Agriculture and Human Values 9:95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Patiño, V.M. 1965. Historia de la Actividad Agropecuaria en America Equinoccial, Cali, Colombia: Imprenta Departmental.Google Scholar
  24. Thurston, H.D. 1994. Slash/mulch systems: Neglected sustainable tropical agroecosystems. In: Slash/ mulch: How farmers use it and what researchers know about it, eds. H.D. Thurston, M. Smith, G. Abawi, and S. Kearl. Cornell University, Ithaca, NY: Cornell International Institute for Food, Agriculture and Development.Google Scholar
  25. Tropical Science Center. 1991. Accounts Overdue: Costa Rica Natural Resource Accounting Study. Tropical Science Center. San José, Costa Rica.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Ron Carroll
  • Anne M. Dix
  • James S. Kettler

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations