Phase-Locked Loop Frequency Synthesizers

  • J. Craninckx
  • M. Steyaert
Part of the The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science book series (SECS, volume 439)


The indirect or phase-locked loop frequency synthesizer offers the distinct advantage over other types of synthesizers of possible low-cost IC integration. This is the main reason why almost all mobile communication chip sets use this circuit. But of course there are also some disadvantages, which require careful study and proper design. Two main areas of specifications characterize a frequency synthesizer.


Phase Noise Phase Detector Reference Frequency Charge Pump Loop Filter 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Craninckx
    • 1
  • M. Steyaert
    • 2
  1. 1.Alcatel MietecBelgium
  2. 2.Katholieke Universiteit LeuvenBelgium

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