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Vitamin D pp 85-99 | Cite as

The Enzymes Responsible for Metabolizing Vitamin D

  • Kyu-Ichiro Okuda
  • Yoshihiko Ohyama
Chapter
Part of the Nutrition and Health book series (NH)

Abstract

Vitamin D is a generic name for the antirachitic agents capable of curing rickets of which vitamin D3 is the major constituent. Vitamin D3 is formed in the skin from 7-dehydrocholesterol, a precursor of cholesterol, by the action of ultraviolet light (1,2). It is then transported to the liver and is hydroxylated at position 25 by vitamin D3 25-hydroxylase (25-hydroxylase) to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. The 25(OH)D3 formed is again transported to the kidney through the blood stream. In the kidney 25(OH)D3 is further hydroxylated at position la by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 1α-hydroxylase (lα-hydroxylase) to 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] which is now considered the hormonal form of the vitamin. It plays a central role in the physiology of calcium homeostasis (2,3). In some calcium statuses, another metabolite of vitamin D3, 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24,25(OH)2D3], is formed from 25(OH)D3 by 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 24-hydroxylase (24-hydroxylase), existing in proximal convoluted tubules of the kidney (4). The two kidney hydroxylases are induced in the reciprocal calcium statuses. lα-Hydroxylase activity is enhanced in a calcium- and/or 1,25(OH)2D3depleted status, whereas that of 24-hydroxylase is enhanced in the replete status (4,5).

Keywords

Kidney Mitochondrion Cerebrotendinous Xanthomatosis CYP24 mRNA CYP24 cDNA Proximal Convoluted Tubular Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kyu-Ichiro Okuda
  • Yoshihiko Ohyama

There are no affiliations available

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