Approximately 400 million years ago, as vertebrates ventured from the ocean onto land, they were confronted with a significant crisis. As they had evolved in the calcium-rich ocean environment, they utilized this abundant cation for signal transduction and a wide variety of cellular and metabolic processes. In addition, calcium became a major component of the skeleton of marine animals and provided the “cement” for structural support. However, on land, the environment was deficient in calcium; as a result, early marine vertebrates that ventured onto land needed to develop a mechanism to utilize and process the scarce amounts of calcium in their environment in order to maintain their calcium-dependent cellular and metabolic activities and also satisfy the large requirement for calcium to mineralize their skeletons.
- Recommend Dietary Allowance
- Adequate Dietary Intake
- Concentration Of25
- Intestinal Calcium Absorption
- Epiphyseal Plate
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Holick, M.F. (1999). Evolution, Biologic Functions, and Recommended Dietary Allowances for Vitamin D. In: Holick, M.F. (eds) Vitamin D. Nutrition and Health. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-2861-3_1
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