• Jonathan F. Bard
Part of the Nonconvex Optimization and Its Applications book series (NOIA, volume 30)


As emphasized throughout the text, the main difficulty in solving bilevel programs stems from their inherent nonconvexity and nondifferentiability. This is true even for the simplest of forms where all the functions are linear and all the variables are continuous. Although exact approaches, such as those based on the Kuhn-Tucker conditions of the follower’s problem or on variable elimination, handle the nonconvexity in different ways, their success has been limited. We are still only able to solve moderate size problems. Heuristics, and what have become known as global optimization techniques, offer additional possibilities.


Genetic Algorithm Tabu Search Grid Search Bilevel Program Global Optimization Technique 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jonathan F. Bard
    • 1
  1. 1.Graduate Program in Operations Research, Department of Mechanical EngineeringThe University of TexasAustinUSA

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