Mercury in aquatic ecosystems

  • Togwell A. Jackson
Chapter

Abstract

Mercury (Hg) is one of the most toxic heavy metals. From a biological perspective it has no redeeming virtue, for, unlike a number of other heavy metals, it is not known to perform any essential biochemical function (Bowen, 1966). Traces of Hg are ubiquitous in soils, natural waters, sediments, organisms and air (Jonasson and Boyle, 1972), and anomalously high Hg concentrations occur in many ecosystems owing to Hg pollution (a serious, widespread problem), natural Hg enrichment in certain rocks, distinctive properties of Hg such as its tendency to form highly stable complexes and compounds (including species that are easily taken up by organisms but not readily excreted), natural processes (e.g. methylation) which enhance the bioavailability of Hg, increased bioavailability of Hg due to environmental changes caused by human activities, and efficient accumulation of Hg by organisms and certain natural materials, such as soil organic matter and fine-grained sediments. Moreover, Hg is a relatively volatile element, and this accounts, in large part, for its wide distribution.

Keywords

Toxicity Fermentation Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Immobilization Monit 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aiken, G.R., McKnight, D.M., Wershaw, R.L. and MacCarthy, P. (1985) Humic Substances in Soil, Sediment, and Water, John Wiley & Sons (Wiley Interscience), New York, Toronto, Chichester, Brisbane, Singapore.Google Scholar
  2. Akagi, H., Miller, D.R. and Kudo, A. (1977) Photochemical transformation of mercury, in Distribution and transport of pollutants in flowing water ecosystems: Ottawa River project, final report, Vol. 1, Chapter 16, National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa.Google Scholar
  3. Alberts, J.J., Schindler, J.E., Miller, R.W. and Nutter, D.E. Jr (1974) Elemental mercury evolution mediated by humic acid, Science 184, 895–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alexander, D.G. (1974) Mercury effects on swimming and metabolism of trout. Proc. Int. Conf on Transport of Persistent Chemicals in Aquatic Ecosystems (Ottawa, Canada, 1–3 May, 1974), Sect. Ill, p. 65–69.Google Scholar
  5. Allard, B. and Arsenie, I. (1991) Abiotic reduction of mercury by humic substances in aquatic system — an important process for the mercury cycle, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 457–464.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Amyot, M., Mierle, G., Lean, D.R.S. and McQueen, D.J. (1994) Sunlight-induced formation of dissolved gaseous mercury in lake waters, Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 2366–2371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anderson, M.R., Scruton, D.A., Williams, U.P. and Payne, J.F. (1995) Mercury in fish in the Smallwood Reservoir, Labrador, twenty one years after impoundment, Water Air Soil Polin 80, 927–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Andersson, A. (1979) Mercury in soils, in The Bio geochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, New York, Oxford, pp. 79–112.Google Scholar
  9. Andersson, P., Borg, H. and Kärrhage, P. (1995) Mercury in fish muscle in acidified and limed lakes. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 889–892.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Andren, A.W. and Harriss, R.C. (1975) Observations on the association between mercury and organic matter dissolved in natural waters, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 39, 1253–1257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Armstrong, F.A.J, and Hamilton, A.L. (1973) Pathways of mercury in a polluted Northwestern Ontario lake, in Trace Metals and Metal-Organic Interactions in Natural Waters, (ed. P.C. Singer), Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, pp. 131–156Google Scholar
  12. Armstrong, F.A.J, and Scott, D.P. (1979) Decrease in mercury content of fishes in Ball Lake, Ontario, since imposition of controls on mercury discharges. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 36, 670–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Aula, I., Braunschweiler, H., Leino, T. et al. (1994) Levels of mercury in the Tucurui Reservoir and its surrounding area in Para, Brazil, in Mercury Pollution, (eds C.J. Watras and J.W. Huckabee), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, pp. 21–40.Google Scholar
  14. Baldi, F., Filipelli, M. and Olson, G.J. (1989) Biotransformation of mercury by bacteria isolated from a river collecting cinnabar mine waters, Microbiol. Ecol. 17, 263–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Baldi, F., Semplici, F. and Filippelli, M. (1991) Environmental applications of mercury resistant bacteria, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 465–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Baldi, F., Parati, F., Semplici, F. and Tandoi, V. (1993a) Biological removal of inorganic Hg(II) as gaseous elemental Hg(0) by continuous culture of a Hg-resistant Pseudomonas putida strain FB-1,. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 9, 275–279.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Baldi, F., Pepi, M. and Filippelli, M. (1993b) Methylmercury resistance in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans strains in relation to methylmercury degradation, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 2479–2485.Google Scholar
  18. Baldi, F., Parati, F. and Filippelli, M. (1995) Dimethylmercury and dimethylmercury-sulfide of microbial origin in the biogeochemical cycle of Hg. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 805–815.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Balzani, V. and Carassiti, V. (1970) Photochemistry of Coordination Compounds, Academic Press, New York, London.Google Scholar
  20. Barkay, T., Turner, R.R., Vanden Brook, A. and Liebert, C. (1991) The relationships of Hg(II) volatilization from a freshwater pond to the abundance of mer genes in the gene pool of the indigenous microbial community, Microbiol. Ecol. 21, 151–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bartlett, P.D. and Craig, P.J. (1979) Methylation processes for mercury in estuarine sediments, in Heavy Metals in the Environment (Proc. Int. Conf. on Management and Control of Heavy Metals in the Environment, London, Sept., 1979), CEP Consultants, Edinburgh, pp. 354–355.Google Scholar
  22. Baughman, G.L., Gordon, J.A., Wolfe, N.L. and Zepp, R.G. (1973) Chemistry of Organomercurials in Aquatic Systems, Ecological Research Series, EPA-660/3–73–012, National Environmental Research Center, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis.Google Scholar
  23. Baxter, R.M. and Carey, J.H. (1982) Reactions of singlet oxygen in hurnic waters, Freshwater Biol 12, 285–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Baxter, R.M. and Carey, J.H. (1983) Evidence for photochemical generation of superoxide ion in humic waters. Nature 306, 575–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Beijer, K. and Jernelöv, A. (1979) Methylation of mercury in aquatic environments, in The Biogeochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, pp. 203–210.Google Scholar
  26. Benes, P. and Havlik, B. (1979) Speciation of mercury in natural waters, in The Biogeochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, pp. 175–202.Google Scholar
  27. Bertilsson, L. and Neujahr, H.Y. (1971) Methylation of mercury compounds by cobalamin, Biochem. 10, 2805–2808.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bidstrup, P.L. (1964) Toxicity of Mercury and its Compounds, Elsevier, Amsterdam, London, New York.Google Scholar
  29. Bishop, J.N. and Neary, B.P. (1974) The form of mercury in freshwater fish. Proc. Int. Conf. on Transport of Persistent Chemicals in Aquatic Ecosystems (Ottawa, Canada, 1–3 May, 1974), Sect. III, pp. 25–29.Google Scholar
  30. Bishop, J.N. and Neary, B.P. (1976) Mercury Levels in Fish from Northwestern Ontario, 1970–1975, Ministry of the Environment, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  31. Bisogni, J.J. (1979) Kinetics of methylmercury formation and decompositon in aquatic environments, in The Biogeochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, pp. 211–230.Google Scholar
  32. Bisogni, J.J. Jr and Lawrence, A.W. (1975) Kinetics of mercury methylation in aerobic and anaerobic aquatic environments, J. Water Polin Control Fed. 47, 135–152.Google Scholar
  33. Björnberg, A., Håkanson, L. and Lundbergh, K. (1988) A theory on the mechanisms regulating the bioavailability of mercury in natural waters, Environ. Polin 49, 53–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bloom, N.S. and Watras, C.J. (1989) Observations of methylmercury in precipitation, Sei. Total Environ. 87/88, 199–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Bloom, N.S., Watras, C.J. and Hurley, J.P. (1991) Impact of acidification on the methylmercury cycle of remote seepage lakes, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 477–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Blum, J.E. and Bartha, R. (1980) Effect of salinity on methylation of mercury, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25, 404–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Bodaly, R.A., Hecky, R.E. and Fudge, R.J.P. (1984) Increases in fish mercury levels in lakes flooded by the Churchill River diversion, northern Manitoba, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41, 682–691.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Bodaly, R.A., Rudd, J.W.M., Fudge, R.J.P. and Kelly, C.A. (1993) Mercury concentrations in fish related to size of remote Canadian Shield lakes, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50, 980–987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Bothner, M.H. and Carpenter, R. (1973) Sorption-desorption reactions of mercury with suspended matter in the Columbia River. Proc. Symp. Radioactive Contamination of the Marine Environment (Vienna, Austria, 1972), IAEA, pp. 73–87.Google Scholar
  40. Boudou, A. and Ribeyre, F. (1981) Comparative study of the trophic transfer of two mercury compounds — HgCl2 and CH3HgCl — between Chlorella vulgaris and Daphnia magna. Influence of temperature. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 27, 624–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Boudou, A., Delnomdedieu, M., Georgescauld, D. et al. (1991) Fundamental roles of biological barriers in mercury accumulation and transfer in freshwater ecosystems, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 807–821.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Bowen, H.J.M. (1966) Trace Elements in Biochemistry, Academic Press, London, New York.Google Scholar
  43. Branfireun, B.A., Heyes, A. and Roulet, N.T. (1996) The hydrology and methylmer-cury dynamics of a Precambrian Shield headwater peatland, Water Resources Res. 32, 1785–1794.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Brosset, C. and Lord, E. (1991) Mercury in precipitation and ambient air — a new scenario. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 493–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Brouard, D., Doyon, J.-F. and Schetagne, R. (1994) Amplification of mercury concentrations in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) downstream from the La Grande 2 Reservoir, James Bay, Québec, in Mercury Pollution, (eds C.J. Watras and J.W. Huckabee), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, pp. 369–379.Google Scholar
  46. Brouzes, R.J.P., McLean, R.A.N, and Tomlinson, G.H. (1977) The link between pH of natural waters and the mercury content of fish. Report presented at meeting of US National Academy of Sciences (National Research Council Panel on Mercury), 3 May, 1977, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  47. Budavari, S., O’Neil, M.J., Smith, A. and Heckelman, P.E. (eds) (1989) The Merck Index, 11th edn, Merck & Co., Rahway.Google Scholar
  48. Burkett, R.D. (1974) The influence of temperature on uptake of methylmercury-203 by bluntnose minnows, Pimephales notatus (Rafinesque), Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 12, 703–709.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Burrows, W.D. and Krenkel, P.A. (1973) Studies on uptake and loss of methylmercury-203 by bluegills (Lepomis macrochiros Raf.), Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 1127–1130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Cabana, G., Tremblay, A., Kalff, J. and Rasmussen, J.B. (1994) Pelagic food chain structure in Ontario lakes: a determinant of mercury levels in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51, 381–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Carry, A.J. and Malone, S.F. (1979) The chemistry of mercury in biological systems, in The Bio geochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, pp. 433–479.Google Scholar
  52. Chen, J., Tang, F. and Wang, F. (1995) Mobilization of mercury from estuarine suspended particulate matter: a case study in the Yalujiang estuary, northeast China, Water Qual. Res. J. Can. 30, 25–32.Google Scholar
  53. Choi, S.-C. and Bartha, R. (1993) Cobalamin-mediated mercury methylation by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans LS. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 59, 290–295.Google Scholar
  54. Choi, S.-C, Chase, T. Jr and Bartha, R. (1994) Metabolic pathways leading to mercury methylation in Desulfovibrio desulfuricans LS. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60, 4072–4077.Google Scholar
  55. Choudhry, G.G. (1984) Humic Substances, Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, New York, London, Paris, Montreux, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  56. Christman, R.F. and Gjessing, E.T. (eds) (1983) Aquatic and Terrestrial Humic Materials, Ann Arbor Science (Butterworth Group), Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
  57. Compeau, G. and Bartha, R. (1984) Methylation and demethylation of mercury under controlled redox, pH, and salinity conditions, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 48, 1203–1207.Google Scholar
  58. Compeau, G. and Bartha, R. (1985) Sulfate-reducing bacteria: principal methylators of mercury in anoxic estuarine sediment, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50, 498–502.Google Scholar
  59. Compeau, G. and Bartha, R. (1987) Effect of salinity on mercury-methylating activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in estuarine sediments, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53, 261–265.Google Scholar
  60. Cope, W.G., Wiener, J.G. and Rada, R.G. (1990) Mercury accumulation in yellow perch in Wisconsin seepage lakes: relation to lake characteristics, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 931–940.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Cotton, F.A. and Wilkinson, G. (1988) Advanced Inorganic Chemistry, 5th edn, Wiley-Interscience (John Wiley & Sons), New York, Toronto, Chichester, Brisbane, Singapore.Google Scholar
  62. Craig, P.J. and Bartlett, P.D. (1978) The role of hydrogen sulphide in environmental transport of mercury. Nature 275, 635–637.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Craig, P.J. and Moreton, P.A. (1986) Total mercury, methyl mercury and sulphide levels in British estuarine sediments, III.Water Res. 20, 1111–1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. De Filippis, L.F. and Pallaghy, C.K. (1975) A simple model for the non-enzymatic reduction and alkylation of mercuric salts in biological systems. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14, 32–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. de Freitas, A.S.W. and Hart, J.S. (1975) Effect of body weight on uptake of methyl mercury by fish, Water Quality Parameters, ASTM STP 573, American Society for Testing and Materials, pp. 356–363.Google Scholar
  66. de Freitas, A.S.W., Qadri, S.U. and Case, B.E. (1974) Origins and fate of mercury compounds in fish, in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transport of Persistent Chemicals in Aquatic Ecosystems (1–3 May, 1974, Ottawa, Canada), Sect. III, pp. 31–36.Google Scholar
  67. de Freitas, A.S.W., Gidney, M.A.J., McKinnon, A.E. and Norstrom, R.J. (1977) Factors affecting whole-body retention of methyl mercury in fish, in Biological Implications of Metals in the Environment, (eds H. Drucker and R.E. Wildung), Proceedings 15th Annual Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, 29 September-1 October, 1975, Richland, Washington, Technical Information Center, Energy Research and Development Administration, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia, pp. 441–451.Google Scholar
  68. de Groot, A.J. and Allersma, E. (1975) Field observations on the transport of heavy metals in sediments, in Heavy Metals in the Aquatic Environment, (ed. P. A. Krenkel), Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, Toronto, Braunschweig, Sydney, pp. 85–101.Google Scholar
  69. de Groot, A.J., de Goeij, J.J.M, and Zegers, C. (1971) Contents and behaviour of mercury as compared with other heavy metals in sediments from the rivers Rhine and Ems. Geologie en Mijnbouw 50, 393–398.Google Scholar
  70. DeSimone, R.E., Penley, M.W., Charbonneau, L. et al. (1973) The kinetics and mechanism of cobalamin-dependent methyl and ethyl transfer to mercuric ion. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 304, 851–863.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Dtri, F. (1971) Comparison of mercury levels in an oligotrophic and a eutrophic lake, Marine Technol. Soc. J. 5, 10–14.Google Scholar
  72. D’Itri, F. (1972) The Environmental Mercury Problem, Chemical Rubber Co. Press, Cleveland.Google Scholar
  73. D’Itri, F. (1991) Mercury contamination — what we have learned since Minamata, Environ. Monitoring Assess. 19, 165–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. D’Itri, F.M., Andren, A.W., Doherty, R.A. et al. (1978) An Assessment of Mercury in the Environment, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  75. Douglas, B.E. and McDaniel, D.H. (1965) Concepts and Models of Inorganic Chemistry, Blaisdell, Waltham (Mass.), Toronto, London.Google Scholar
  76. Dyrssen, D. and Wedborg, M. (1991) The sulphur-mercury(II) system in natural waters, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 507–519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Engstrom, D.R., Swain, E.B., Henning, T.A. et al. (1994) Atmospheric mercury deposition to lakes and watersheds, in Environmental Chemistry of Lakes and Reservoirs, (ed. L.A. Baker), pp. 33–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Evans, R.D. (1986) Sources of mercury contamination in the sediments of small headwater lakes in south-central Ontario, Canada. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 15, 505–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Fagerström, T. and Jernelöv, A. (1972) Some aspects of the quantitative ecology of mercury. Water Res. 6, 1193–1202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Farrah, H. and Pickering, W.F. (1978) The sorption of mercury species by clay minerals. Water, Air, Soil Polin 9, 23–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Farrell, R.E., Germida, J.J. and Huang, P.M. (1990) Biotoxicity of mercury as influenced by mercury(II) speciation, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 3006–3016.Google Scholar
  82. Faust, B.C. (1992) The octanol/water distribution coefficients of methylmercuric species: the role of aqueous-phase chemical speciation, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 11, 1373–1376.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Feick, G., Home, R.A. and Yeapple, D. (1972) Release of mercury from contaminated freshwater sediments by the runoff of road deicing salt, Science 175, 1142–1143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Fimreite, N. and Reynolds, L.M. (1973) Mercury contamination of fish in Northwestern Ontario,. J. Wildlife Manage. 37, 62–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Fitzgerald, W.F., Mason, R.P. and Vandal, G.M. (1992) Atmospheric cycling and air-water exchange of mercury over mid-continent lakes, in The Deposition and Fate of Trace Metals in Our Environment, (eds E.S. Verry and S.J. Vermette), Forest Service (US Department of Agriculture), North Central Forest Experiment Station, pp. 139–156.Google Scholar
  86. Forbes, E.A., Posner, A.M. and Quirk, J.P. (1974) The specific adsorption of inorganic Hg(II) species and Co(III) complex ions on goethite, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 49, 403–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Friske, P.W.B. and Coker, W.B. (1995) The importance of geological controls on the natural distribution of mercury in lake and stream sediments across Canada, Water Air Soil Polin 80, 1047–1051.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Gagnon, C, Pelletier, É., Mucci, A. and Fitzgerald, W.F. (1996) Diagenetic behavior of methylmercury in organic-rich coastal sediments, Limnol. Oceanogr. 41,428–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ganther, H.E., Goudie, C, Sunde, M.L. et al. (1972) Selenium: relation to decreased toxicity of methylmercury added to diets containing tuna, Science 175, 1122–1124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Gavis, J. and Ferguson, J.F. (1972) The cycling of mercury through the environment. Water Res. 6, 989–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Gottofrey, J. and Tjälve, H. (1991) Effect of lipophilic complex formation on the uptake and distribution of Hg2+ and CH3-Hg+ in brown trouts (Salmo trutta): studies with some compounds containing sulphur ligands. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 521–532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Grieb, T.M., Driscoll, CT., Gloss, S.P. et al (1990) Factors affecting mercury accumulation in fish in the upper Michigan peninsula, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 919–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Hahne, H.C.H, and Kroontje, W. (1973) Significance of pH and chloride concentration on behavior of heavy metal pollutants: mercury(II), zinc(II), and lead(II), /. Environ. Qual. 2, 444–450.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Haines, T.A., Komov, V.T. and Jagoe, C.H. (1994) Mercury concentration in perch (Perca fluviatilis) as influenced by lacustrine physical and chemical factors in two regions of Russia, in Mercury Pollution, (eds C.J. Watras and J.W. Huckabee), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, pp. 397–407.Google Scholar
  95. Håkanson, L. (1980) The quantitative impact of pH, bioproduction and Hg-contami-nation on the Hg-content of fish (pike), Environ. Polin (Series B) 1, 285–304.Google Scholar
  96. Håkanson, L., Nilsson, Å. and Andersson, T. (1988) Mercury in fish in Swedish lakes. Environ. Polin 49, 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Hallberg, R. (1978) Metal-organic interaction at the redoxcline, in Environmental Bio geochemistry and Geomicrobiology, Vol. 3, (ed. W.E. Krumbein), Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor (Michigan), pp. 947–953.Google Scholar
  98. Hamdy, M.K. and Noyés, O.R. (1975) Formation of methyl mercury by bacteria, Appl. Microbiol. 30, 424–432.Google Scholar
  99. Hamdy, M.K. and Wheeler, S.R. (1978) Inhibition of bacterial growth by mercury and the effects of protective agents, Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 20, 378–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Hamdy, M.K., Noyes, O.R. and Wheeler, S.R. (1977) Effect of mercury on bacteria: protection and transmethylation, in Biological Implications of Metals in the Environment (Proceedings 15th Annual Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, Richland, Washington, 29th September-lst October, 1975), (eds H. Drucker and R.E. Wildung,), Technical Information Center, Energy Research and Development Administration, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia, pp. 20–35.Google Scholar
  101. Hecky, R.E., Bodaly, R.A., Strange, N.E. et al. (1987) Mercury bioaccumulation in yellow perch in limnocorrals simulating the effects of reservoir formation, in Technical Appendices to the Summary Report, Canada-Manitoba Agreement on the Study and Monitoring of Mercury in the Churchill River Diversion, Vol. 2, Chapter 7, Governments of Canada and Manitoba.Google Scholar
  102. Hecky, R.E., Ramsey, DJ., Bodaly, R.A. and Strange, N.E. (1991) Increased methylmercury contamination in fish in newly formed freshwater reservoirs, in Advances in Mercury Toxicology, (eds T. Suzuki, N. Imura and T.W. Clarkson), Plenum Press, New York, London, pp. 33–52.Google Scholar
  103. Heisinger, J.F., Hansen, CD. and Kim, J.H. (1979) Effect of selenium dioxide on the accumulation and acute toxicity of mercuric chloride to goldfish. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 8, 279–283.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Heit, M., Tan, Y., Klusek, C. and Burke, J.C. (1981) Anthropogenic trace elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in sediment cores from two lakes in the Adirondack acid lake region, Water Air Soil Polin 15, AAI-A6A.Google Scholar
  105. Hintelmann, H. and Wilken, R.-D. (1995) Levels of total mercury and methylmercury compounds in sediments of the polluted Elbe River: influences of seasonally and spatially varying environmental factors, Sei. Total Environ. 166, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Hintelmann, H., Hempel, M. and Wilken, R.D. (1995a) Observation of unusual organic mercury species in soils and sediments of industrially contaminated sites. Environ. Sci. Technol. 29, 1845–1850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Hintelmann, H., Welbourn, P.M. and Evans, R.D. (1995b) Binding of methylmercury compounds by humic and fulvic acids. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 1031–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hogg, T.J., Stewart, J.W.B. and Bettany, J.R. (1978) Influence of the chemical form of mercury on its adsorption and ability to leach through soils, J. Environ. Qual. 7, 440–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Huckabee, J.W., Elwood, J.W. and Hildebrand, S.G. (1979) Accumulation of mercury in freshwater biota, in The Biogeochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, pp. 277–302.Google Scholar
  110. Hudson, R.J.M., Gherini, S.A., Watras, C.J. and Porcella, D.B. (1994) Modeling the biogeochemical cycle of mercury in lakes: the mercury cycling model (MCM) and its application to the MTL Study lakes, in Mercury Pollution (eds C.J. Watras and J.W. Huckabee), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, pp. 473–523.Google Scholar
  111. Hudson, R.J.M., Gherini, S.A., Fitzgerald, W.F. and Porcella, D.B. (1995) Anthropogenic influences on the global mercury cycle: a model-based analysis, Water Air Soil Polin 80, 265–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Huey, C, Brinckman, F.E., Grim, S. and Iverson, W.P. (1974) The role of tin in bacterial methylation of mercury. Proc. Int. Conf. on Transport of Persistent Chemicals in Aquatic Ecosystems (Ottawa, Canada, 1–3 May, 1974), Sect. II, pp. 73–78.Google Scholar
  113. Hultberg, H., Parkman, H. and Renberg, I. (1994) Recent decrease in atmospheric deposition of total mercury as reflected by total and methyl mercury profiles in profundal sediments in one acid and one limed lake on the Swedish west coast [abstract], in Abstracts, International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant (Whistler, British Columbia (Canada), July, 1994). Google Scholar
  114. Inoko, M. (1981) Studies on the photochemical decomposition of organomercurials -methylmercury(II) chloride. Environ. Polin (Ser. B) 2, 3–10.Google Scholar
  115. Inoue, Y. and Munemori, M. (1979) Coprecipitation of mercury(II) with iron(III) hydroxide, Environ. Sci. Technol. 13, 443–445.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Jackson, K.S., Jonasson, I.R. and Skippen, G.B. (1978) The nature of metals-sediment-water interactions in freshwater bodies, with emphasis on the role of organic matter, Earth-Science Rev. 14, 97–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Jackson, T.A. (1978) The biogeochemistry of heavy metals in polluted lakes and streams at Flin Flon, Canada, and a proposed method for limiting heavy-metal pollution of natural waters, Environ. Geol. 2, 173–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Jackson, T.A. (1979) Relationships between the properties of heavy metals and their biogeochemical behaviour in lakes and river-lake systems, in Heavy Metals in the Environment (Proceedings International Conference on Management and Control of Heavy Metals in the Environment, September, 1979, London), CEP Consultants, Edinburgh, pp. 457–460.Google Scholar
  119. Jackson, T.A. (ed.) (1980) Mercury Pollution in the Wabigoon-English River System of Northwestern Ontario, and Possible Remedial Measures: a Progress Report, Government of Canada (Department of the Environment) and Government of Ontario (Ministry of the Environment).Google Scholar
  120. Jackson, T.A. (1984) Effects of inorganic cadmium, zinc, copper, and mercury on methyl mercury production in polluted lake sediments, in Environmental Impacts of Smelters, (ed J.O. Nriagu), John Wiley & Sons (Wiley-Interscience), New York, Toronto, Chichester, Brisbane, Singapore, pp. 551–578.Google Scholar
  121. Jackson, T.A. (1986) Methyl mercury levels in a polluted prairie river-lake system: seasonal and site-specific variations, and the dominant influence of trophic conditions, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43, 1873–1887.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Jackson, T.A. (1987) Methylation, demethylation, and bioaccumulation of mercury in lakes and reservoirs of northern Manitoba, with particular reference to effects of environmental changes caused by the Churchill-Nelson River diversion, in Technical Appendices to the Summary Report, CanadaManitoba Agreement on the Study and Monitoring of Mercury in the Churchill River Diversion, Vol. 2, Chapter 8, Governments of Canada and Manitoba.Google Scholar
  123. Jackson, T.A. (1988a) Accumulation of mercury by plankton and benthic invertebrates in riverine lakes of northern Manitoba (Canada): importance of regionally and seasonally varying environmental factors, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45, 1744–1757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Jackson, T.A. (1988b) The mercury problem in recently formed reservoirs of northern Manitoba (Canada): effects of impoundment and other factors on the production of methyl mercury by microorganisms in sediments, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45, 97–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Jackson, T.A. (1989) The influence of clay minerals, oxides, and humic matter on the methylation and demethylation of mercury by micro-organisms in freshwater sediments, Appl. Organometal. Chem. 3, 1–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Jackson, T.A. (1991a) Biological and environmental control of mercury accumulation by fish in lakes and reservoirs of northern Manitoba, Canada, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48, 2449–2470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Jackson, T.A. (1991b) Effects of heavy metals and selenium on mercury methylation and other microbial activities in freshwater sediments, in Heavy Metals in the Environment, (ed. J.P. Vernet), Elsevier, Amsterdam, London, New York, Tokyo, pp. 191–217.Google Scholar
  128. Jackson, T.A. (1993a) Effects of environmental factors and primary production on the distribution and methylation of mercury in a chain of highly eutrophic riverine lakes, Water Polin Res. J. Can. 28, 177–216. (Also see : ‘Erratum’, Water Polin Res. J. Can. 28, after p. 512.)Google Scholar
  129. Jackson, T.A. (1993b) The influence of phytoplankton blooms and environmental variables on the methylation, demethylation, and bio-accumulation of mercury (Hg) in a chain of eutrophic mercury- polluted riverine lakes in Saskatchewan, Canada, in Heavy Metals in the Environment (eds R.J. Allan and J.O. Nriagu), Proceedings International Conference, Toronto, September 1993, Vol. 2, CEP Consultants Ltd, Edinburgh, pp. 301–304.Google Scholar
  130. Jackson, T.A. (1995) Effects of clay minerals, oxyhydroxides, and humic matter on microbial communities of soil, sediment, and water, in Environmental Impact of Soil Component Interactions, (eds P.M. Huang, J. Berthelin, J.M. Bollag et al.), Lewis Publishers (CRC Press), Boca Raton, London, Tokyo, pp. 165–200.Google Scholar
  131. Jackson, T.A. (1997) Long-range atmospheric transport of mercury to ecosystems, and the importance of anthropogenic emissions — a critical review and evaluation of the published evidence. Environ. Revs 5, 99–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Jackson, T.A. (1998) The biogeochemical and ecological significance of interactions between colloidal minerals and trace elements, in Environmental Interactions of Clay Minerals, (eds J.E. Rae and A. Parker), Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, London, Paris, Barcelona, New York, Tokyo, Hong Kong, (in press).Google Scholar
  133. Jackson, T. A. and Bistricki, T. (1995) Selective scavenging of copper, zinc, lead, and arsenic by iron and manganese oxyhydroxide coatings on plankton in lakes polluted with mine and smelter wastes: results of energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis, J. Geochem. Explor. 52, 97–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Jackson, T.A. and Hecky, R.E. (1980) Depression of primary productivity by humic matter in lake and reservoir waters of the Boreal forest zone, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37, 2300–2317.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Jackson, T.A. and Woychuk, R.N. (1980a) Mercury speciation and distribution in a polluted river-lake system as related to the problem of lake restoration, in Restoration of Lakes and Inland Waters, Proceedings International Symposium on Inland Waters and Lake Restoration, 8–12 September 1980, Portland, Maine, EPA 440/5–81–010, US Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Washington, pp. 93–101.Google Scholar
  136. Jackson, T.A. and Woychuk, R.N. (1980b) The geochemistry and distribution of mercury in the Wabigoon River system, in Mercury Pollution in the Wabigoon-English River System of Northwestern Ontario, and Possible Remedial Measures — a Progress Report, (ed. T.A. Jackson), Government of Canada (Department of the Environment) and Government of Ontario (Ministry of the Environment).Google Scholar
  137. Jackson, T.A. and Woychuk, R.N. (1981) Methyl mercury formation and distribution in a polluted river-lake system: the effect of environmental variables, and implications for biological uptake and lake restoration. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 21, 1114–1115 (abstract).Google Scholar
  138. Jackson, T.A., Kipphut, G., Hesslein, R.H. and Schindler, D.W. (1980) Experimental study of trace metal chemistry in soft-water lakes at different pH levels, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37, 387–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Jackson, T.A., Parks, J.W., Jones, P.D. et al. (1982) Dissolved and suspended mercury species in the Wabigoon River (Ontario, Canada): seasonal and regional variatons, Hydrobiol. 92, 473–487.Google Scholar
  140. Jackson, T.A., Klaverkamp, J.F. and Dutton, M.D. (1993) Heavy metal speciation and its biological consequences in a group of lakes polluted by a smelter, Flin Flon, Manitoba, Canada, Appl. Geochem. (Suppl.) 2, 285–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Jensen, S. and Jernelöv, A. (1969) Biological methylation of mercury in aquatic organisms, Nature 223, 753–754.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Jernelöv, Å. (1972) Factors in the transformation of mercury to methylmercury, in Environmental Mercury Contamination, (eds R. Härtung and B.D. Dinman), Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, pp. 167–172.Google Scholar
  143. Jernelöv, A, Landner, L. and Larsson, T. (1975) Swedish perspectives on mercury pollution. J Water Polin Control Fed 47, 810–822.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Jernelöv, A. and Lann, H. (1971) Mercury accumulation in food chains. Oikos 22, 403–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Johnson, M.G., Culp, L.R. and George, S.E. (1986) Temporal and spatial trends in metal loadings to sediments of the Turkey Lakes, Ontario, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43, 754–762.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Jonasson, LR. and Boyle, R.W. (1972) Geochemistry of mercury and origins of natural contamination of the environment, Can. Mining Metallurg. (CIM) Bull. 65, 32–39.Google Scholar
  147. Kelly, CA., Rudd, J.W.M., St Louis, V.L. and Heyes, A. (1995) Is total mercury a good predictor of methyl mercury concentration in aquatic systems? Water Air Soil Polin 80, 715–724.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Kerndorff, H. and Schnitzer, M. (1980) Sorption of metals on humic acid. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44, 1701–1708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Kerry, A., Welbourn, P.M., Prucha, B. and Mierle, G. (1991) Mercury methylation by sulphate-reducing bacteria from sediments of an acid stressed lake, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 565–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Khalid, R.A., Gambrell, R.P. and Patrick, W.H. Jr (1977) Sorption and release of mercury by Mississippi River sediment as affected by pH and redox potential, in Biological Implications of Metals in the Environment, (eds H. Drucker and R.E. Wildung), Proceedings 15th Annual Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, Richland, Washington, 29 September-1 October, 1975), Technical Information Center, Energy Research & Development Administration, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia, pp. 297–314.Google Scholar
  151. Kidby, D.K. (1974) On the nature and significance of mercury inhibition of invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. J. Gen. Microbiol. 84, 343–349.Google Scholar
  152. Kinniburgh, D.G. and Jackson, M.L. (1978) Adsorption of mercury(II) by iron hydrous oxide gel. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 42, 45–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. Knauer, G.A. and Martin, J.H. (1972) Mercury in a marine pelagic food chain. Limnol. Oceanogr. 17, 868–876.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Koeman, J.H., Peeters, W.H.M., Koudstaal-Hol, C.H.M. et al (1973) Mercury-selenium correlations in marine mammals. Nature 245, 385–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Koeman, J.H., van de Ven, W.S.M., de Goeij, J.J.M, et al. (1975) Mercury and selenium in marine mammals and birds. Sei. Total Environ. 3, 279–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Kondratyev, K.Ya. (1969) Radiation in the Atmosphere, Academic Press, New York, London.Google Scholar
  157. Kooner, Z.S., Cox, CD. and Smoot, J.L. (1995) Prediction of adsorption of divalent heavy metals at the goethite/water interface by surface complexation modeling. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 14, 2077–2083.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Korthals, E.T. and Winfrey, M.R. (1987) Seasonal and spatial variations in mercury methylation and demethylation in an oligotrophic lake. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53, 2397–2404.Google Scholar
  159. Landner, L. (1971) Biochemical model for the biological methylation of mercury suggested from methylation from methylation studies in vivo with Neurospora crassa. Nature 230, 452–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Langford, C.H. and Carey, J.H. (1987) Photocatalysis by inorganic components of natural water systems, in Photochemistry of Environmental Aquatic Systems, (eds W.J. Cooper and R.G. Zika), ACS Symposium Series no. 327, American Chemical Society.Google Scholar
  161. Langley, D.G. (1973) Mercury methylation in an aquatic environment, J. Water Polin Control Fed. 45, 44–51.Google Scholar
  162. Lathrop, R.C., Noonan, K.C., Guenther, P.M. et al. (1989) Mercury Levels in Walleye from Wisconsin Lakes of Different Water and Sediment Chemistry Characteristics, Tech. Bull. 163, Department of Natural Resources, Madison, Wisconsin.Google Scholar
  163. Lathrop, R.C., Rasmussen, P.W. and Knauer, D.R. (1991) Mercury concentrations in walleyes from Wisconsin (USA) lakes, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 295–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Leckie, J.O. and James, R.O. (1974) Control mechanisms for trace metals in natural waters, in Aqueous-environmental Chemistry of Metals, (ed. A.J. Rubin), Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor (Michigan), pp. 1–76.Google Scholar
  165. Lee, Y.-H. and Hultberg, H. (1990) Methylmercury in some Swedish surface waters. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 833–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Lee, Y.-H. and Iverfeldt, Å. (1991) Measurement of methylmercury and mercury in run-off, lake, and rain waters, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 309–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Lemly, A.D. and Smith, G.J. (1987) Aquatic Cycling of Selenium: Implications for Fish and Wildlife, Fish and Wildlife Service Leaflet 12, US Department of the Interior (Fish and Wildlife Service), Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  168. Lide, D.R. (ed.) (1992) CRC Handbook of Physics and Chemistry, 73rd edn, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  169. Liebert, C.A., Barkay, T. and Turner, R.R. (1991) Acclimation of aquatic microbial communities to Hg(II) and CH3Hg+ in polluted freshwater ponds. Microb. Ecol. 21, 139–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Lindberg, S.E. (1987) Emission and deposition of atmospheric mercury vapor, in Lead, Mercury, Cadmium and Arsenic in the Environment, (eds T.C. Hutchinson and K.M. Meema), John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, New York, Toronto, Brisbane, Singapore, pp. 89–106.Google Scholar
  171. Lindberg, S.E. and Harriss, R.C. (1974) Mercury-organic matter associations in estu-arine sediments and interstitial water. Environ. Sci. Technol. 8, 459–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Lindqvist, O., Johansson, K., Aastrup, M. et al. (1991) Mercury in the Swedish environment — recent research on causes, consequences and corrective methods, Water Air Soil Polin 55, 1–261.Google Scholar
  173. Lockhart, W.L., Wilkinson, P., Billeek, B.N. et al. (1993) Poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mercury in sediments from two isolated lakes in central and northern Canada. Water Sci. Technol. 28, 43–52.Google Scholar
  174. Lockwood, R.A. and Chen, K.Y. (1973) Adsorption of Hg(II) by hydrous manganese oxides. Environ. Sci. Technol. 7, 1028–1034.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Louchouarn, P., Lucotte, M., Mucci, A. and Pichet, P. (1993) Geochemistry of mercury in two hydroelectric reservoirs in Quebec, Canada. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 50, 269–281.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. MacNaughton, M.G. and James, R.O. (1974) Adsorption of aqueous mercury(II) complexes at the oxide/water interface. J. Colloid Interface Sci. 47, 431–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Magos, L. (1991) Overview on the protection given by selenium against mercurials, in Advances in Mercury Toxicology, (eds T. Suzuki, N. Imura and T.W. Clarkson), Plenum Press, New York and London, pp. 289–298.Google Scholar
  178. Major, M.A., Rosenblatt, and Bostian, K.A. (1991) The octanol/water partition coefficient of methylmercuric chloride and methylmercuric hydroxide in pure water and salt solutions. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 10, 5–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Martin, M.H. and Coughtrey, P.J. (1982) Biological Monitoring of Heavy Metal Pollution, Applied Science Publishers, London, New York.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Mason, J.W., Anderson, A.C. and Shariat, M. (1979) Rate of demethylation of methylmercuric chloride by Enterobacter aerogenes and Serratia marcescens. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 21, 262–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Mason, R.P. and Fitzgerald, W.F. (1991) Mercury speciation in open ocean waters. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 779–789.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Mason, R.P. and Fitzgerald, W.F. (1993) The distribution and biogeochemical cycling of mercury in the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Deep-Sea Res. J. 40, 1897–1924.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Mason, R.P., Morel, F.M.M. and Hemond, H.F. (1995a) The role of microorganisms in elemental mercury formation in natural waters. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 775–787.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Mason, R.P., Reinfelder, J.R. and Morel, F.M.M. (1995b) Bioaccumulation of mercury and methylmercury. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 915–921.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. Matheson, D.H. (1979) Mercury in the atmosphere and in precipitation, in The Bio geochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, pp. 113–129.Google Scholar
  186. Matilainen, T. (1995) Involvement of bacteria in methylmercury formation in anaerobic lake waters. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 757–764.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Matilainen, T. and Verta, M. (1995) Mercury methylation and demethylation in aerobic surface waters. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52, 1597–1608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Matilainen, T., Verta, M., Niemi, M. and Uusi-Rauva, A. (1991) Specific rates of net methylmercury production in lake sediments, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 595–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. May, K., Stoeppler, M. and Reisinger, K. (1987) Studies in the ratio total mer-cury/methylmercury in the aquatic food chain. Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 13, 153–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. McBride, B.C. and Edwards, T.L. (1977) Role of the methanogenic bacteria in the alkylation of arsenic and mercury, in Biological Implications of Metals in the Environment, (eds H. Drucker and R.E. Wildung), Proceedings 15th Annual Hanford Life Sciences Symposium, Richland, Washington, 29th September-1st October 1975, Technical Information Center, Energy Research and Development Administration, US Department of Commerce, Springfield, Virginia, pp. 1–19.Google Scholar
  191. McMurty, M.J., Wales, D.L., Scheider, W.A. et al. (1989) Relationship of mercury concentrations in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) to the physical and chemical characteristics of Ontario lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46, 426–434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Meili, M. (1991) The coupling of mercury and organic matter in the biogeochemical cycle — towards a mechanistic model for the Boreal forest zone, Water Air Soil Polin 56, 333–347.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. Meili, M., Iverfeldt, Å. and Håkanson, L. (1991) Mercury in the surface water of Swedish forest lakes — concentrations, speciation and controlling factors. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 439–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Messier, D. and Roy, D. (1987) Concentrations en mercure chez les poissons au complexe hydroélectrique de La Grande Rivière (Québec). Naturaliste Can. (Rev. Écol. Syst.) 114, 357–368.Google Scholar
  195. Meyer, M.W., Evers, D.C., Daulton, T. and Braselton, W.E. (1995) Common loons (Gavia immer) nesting on low pH lakes in northern Wisconsion have elevated blood mercury content. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 871–880.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Miettinen, J.K. (1975) The accumulation and excretion of heavy metals in organisms, in Heavy Metals in the Aquatic Environment, (ed. P.A. Krenkel), Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, Toronto, Sydney, Braunschweig, pp. 155–166.Google Scholar
  197. Miskimmin, B.M., Rudd, J.W.M. and Kelly, C.A. (1992) Influence of dissolved organic carbon, pH, and microbial respiration rates on mercury methylation and demethylation in lake water, Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 49, 17–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Morris, C. (1992) Academic Press Dictionary of Science and Technology, Academic Press, San Diego, New York, Boston, London, Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo.Google Scholar
  199. Morrison, K.A. and Thérien, N. (1995) Changes in mercury levels in lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) and northern pike (Esox lucius) in the LG-2 reservoir since flooding. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 819–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Mortimer, D.C. and Kudo, A. (1975) Interaction between aquatic plants and bed sediments in mercury uptake from flowing water. J. Environ. Qual. 4, 491–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Mucci, A., Lucotte, M., Montgomery, S. et al. (1995) Mercury remobilization from flooded soils in a hydroelectric reservoir of northern Quebec, La Grande-2: results of a soil resuspension experiment. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 52, 2507–2517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Munthe, J., Xiao, Z.F. and Lindqvist, O. (1991) The aqueous reduction of divalent mercury by sulfite. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 621–630.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Nagase, H., Ose, Y., Sato, T. and Ishikawa, T. (1982) Methylation of mercury by humic substances in an aquatic environment. Sci. Total Environ. 25, 133–142.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Nakamura, K., Sakamoto, M., Uchiyama, H. and Yagi, O. (1990) Organomercurial-volatilizing bacteria in the mercury-polluted sediment of Minamata Bay, Japan. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 56, 304–305.Google Scholar
  205. Newton, D.W., Ellis, R. Jr and Paulsen, G.M. (1976) Effect of pH and complex formation on mercury(II) adsorption by bentonite. J. Environ. Qual. 5, 251–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Nicoletto, P.F. and Hendricks, A.C. (1988) Sexual differences in accumulation of mercury in four species of centrarchid fishes., Can. J. Zool. 66, 944–949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Norstrom, R.J., McKinnon, A.E. and deFreitas, A.S.W. (1976) A bioenergetics-based model for pollutant accumulation by fish. Simulation of PCB and methylmercury residue levels in Ottawa River yellow perch (Perca flavescens). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33, 248–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Nriagu, J.O. (1989) A global assessment of natural sources of atmospheric trace metals, Nature 338, 47–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Nriagu, J.O. (1992) Worldwide contamination of the atmosphere with toxic metals, in The Deposition and Fate of Trace Metals in Our Environment, (eds E.S. Verry and S.J. Vermette), Forest Service (US Department of Agriculture), North Central Forest Experiment Station, pp. 9–21.Google Scholar
  210. Nriagu, J.O. and Pacyna, J.M. (1988) Quantitative assessment of worldwide contamination of air, water and soils by trace metals. Nature 333, 134–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Nuzzi, R. (1972) Toxicity of mercury to phytoplankton. Nature 237, 38–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Ochiai, E.-I. (1977) Bioinorganic Chemistry, Allyn and Bacon, Boston, Toronto, London, Sydney.Google Scholar
  213. Odin, M., Feurtet-Mazel, A., Ribeyre, F. and Boudou, A. (1994) Actions and interactions of temperature, pH and photoperiod on mercury bioaccumulation by nymphs of the burrowing mayfly Hexagenia rigida, from the sediment contamination source. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 13, 1291 – 1302.Google Scholar
  214. Olson, B.H. and Cooper, R.C. (1976) Comparison of aerobic and anaerobic methylation of mercuric chloride by San Francisco Bay sediments Water Res. 10, 113–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Oremland, R.S., Culbertson, C.W. and Winfrey, M.R. (1991) Methylmercury decomposition in sediments and bacterial cultures: involvement of methanogens and sulfate reducers in oxidative demethylation Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 130–137.Google Scholar
  216. Ouellet, M. and Jones, H.G. (1983) Historical changes in acid precipitation and heavy metal deposition originating from fossil fuel combustion in eastern North America as revealed by lake sediment geochemistry. Water Sci. Technol. 15, 115–130.Google Scholar
  217. Pacyna, J.M. and Keeler, G.J. (1995) Sources of mercury in the Arctic. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 621–632.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Pahan, K., Ghosh, D.K., Ray, S. et al. (1994) Mercury and organomercurial degrading enzymes in a broad-spectrum Hg-resistant strain of Bacillus pasteurii. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 52, 582–589.Google Scholar
  219. Painter, S., Cameron, E.M., Allan, R. and Rouse, J. (1994) Reconnaissance geochemistry and its environmental relevance. J. Geochem. Explor. 51, 213–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Palheta, D. and Taylor, A. (1995) Mercury in environmental and biological samples from a gold mining area in the Amazon region of Brazil. Sei. Total Environ. 168, 63–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Pan-Hou and Imura, N. (1982) Physiological role of mercury-methylation in Clostridium cochlearium T-2C. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 29, 290–297.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Parks, J.W. (1976) Mercury in Sediment and Water in the Wabigoon-English River System, 1970–1975, Ministry of the Environment, Ontario, Canada.Google Scholar
  223. Parks, J.W. and Hamilton, A.L. (1987) Accelerating recovery of the mercury-contaminated Wabigoon/English River system, Hydrobiology 149, 159–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. Parks, J.W., Sutton, J.A. and Lutz, A. (1986) Effect of point and diffuse source loadings on mercury concentrations in the Wabigoon River: evidence of a seasonally varying sediment-water partition. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43, 1426–1444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. Parks, J.W., Lutz, A. and Sutton, J.A. (1989) Water column methylmercury in the Wabigoon/English river-lake system: factors controlling concentrations, specia-tion, and net production. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46, 2184–2202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. Parks, J.W., Craig, P.J., Neary, B.P. et al. (1991a) Biomonitoring in the mercury-contaminated Wabigoon-English-Winnipeg River (Canada) system: selecting the best available bioindicator. Appl. Organometal. Chem. 5, 487–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. Parks, J.W., Curry, C, Romani, D. and Russell, D.D. (1991b) Young northern pike, yellow perch and crayfish as bioindicators in a mercury contaminated watercourse. Environ. Monit. Assess. 16, 39–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. Paulsson, K. and Lundbergh, K. (1991) Treatment of mercury contaminated fish by selenium addition. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 833–841.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. Phillips, C.S.G. and Williams, R.J.P. (1965) Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. I, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York.Google Scholar
  230. Phillips, G.F., Dixon, B.E. and Lidzey, R.G. (1959) The volatility of organo-mercury compounds. J. Sci. FoodAgric. 10, 604–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  231. Ponce, R.A. and Bloom, N.S. (1991) Effect of pH on the bioaccumulation of low level, dissolved methylmercury by rainbow trout (Oncorhyncus my kiss). Water Air Soil Polin 56, 631–640.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. Porcella, D.B., Huckabee, J.W. and Wheatley, B. (eds) (1995) Mercury as a Global Pollutant, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, London, Boston.Google Scholar
  233. Rabenstein, D.L. and Reid, R.S. (1984) Nuclear magnetic resonance studies of the solution chemistry of metal complexes. 20. Ligand-exchange kinetics of methylmercury(II)-thiol complexes. Inorg. Chem. 23, 1246–1250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. Radosevich, M. and Klein, D.A. (1993) Bacterial enumeration and mercury volatilization in deep subsurface sediment samples. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 51, 226–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. Ramamoorthy, S. and Kushner, D.J. (1975a) Binding of mercuric and other heavy metal ions by microbial growth media. Microbiol. Ecology 2, 162–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. Ramamoorthy, S. and Kushner, D.J. (1975b) Heavy metal binding components of river water. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32, 1755–1766.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. Ramamoorthy, S. and Rust, B.R. (1976) Mercury sorption and desorption characteristics of some Ottawa River sediments. Can. J. Earth Sci. 13, 530–536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. Ramamoorthy, S. and Rust, B.R. (1978) Heavy metal exchange processes in sediment-water systems. Environ. Geol. 2, 165–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. Ramlal, P.S., Rudd, J.W.M., Furutani, A. and Xun, L. (1985) The effect of pH on methyl mercury production and decomposition in lake sediments. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42, 685–692.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. Rändle, K. and Hartmann, E.H. (1987) Applications of the continuous flow stirred cell (CFSC) technique to adsorption of zinc, cadmium and mercury on humic acids. Geoderma 40, 281–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. Rask, M. and Metsälä, T.-R. (1991) Mercury concentrations in northern pike, Esox lucius L., in small lakes of Evo area, southern Finland. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 369–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. Rasmussen, P.E. (1994) Current methods of estimating atmospheric mercury fluxes in remote areas. Environ. Sci. Technol. 28, 2233–2241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. Regnell, O. (1994) The effect of pH and dissolved oxygen levels on methylation and partitioning of mercury in freshwater model systems. Environ. Polin 84, 7–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. Regnell, O. (1995) Methyl mercury in lakes: factors affecting its production and partitioning between water and sediment. PhD dissertation, Lund University (Department of Ecology — Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology), Sweden.Google Scholar
  245. Regnell, O. and Tunlid, A. (1991) Laboratory study of chemical speciation of mercury in lake sediment and water under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 57, 789–795.Google Scholar
  246. Reimers, R.S. and Krenkel, P.A. (1974) Kinetics of mercury adsorption and desorption in sediments. Water Polin Control Fed. 46, 352–365.Google Scholar
  247. Reimers, R.S., Krenkel, P.A., Eagle, M. and Tragitt, G. (1975) Sorption phenomenon in the organics of bottom sediments, in Heavy Metals in the Aquatic Environment, (ed. P.A. Krenkel), Pergamon Press, Oxford, New York, Toronto, Sydney, Braunschweig, pp. 117–129.Google Scholar
  248. Reinert, R.E., Stone, L.J. and Willford, W.A. (1974) Effect of temperature on accumulation of methylmercuric chloride and P,P’ DDT by rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 31, 1649–1652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. Ribeyre, F. and Boudou, A. (1982) Study of the dynamics of the accumulation of two mercury compounds — HgCl2 and CH3HgCl — by Chlorella vulgaris: effect of temperature and pH factor of the environment. Int. J. Environ. Studies 20, 35–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. Ribo, J.M., Yang, J.E. and Huang, P.M. (1989) Luminescent bacteria toxicity assay in the study of mercury speciation. Hydrobiology 188/189, 155–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. Rich, D. (1965) Periodic Correlations, W.A. Benjamin, New York, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  252. Richman, L.A., Wren, CD. and Stokes, P.M. (1988) Facts and fallacies concerning mercury uptake by fish in acid stressed lakes. Water Air Soil Polin 37, 465–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. Rimerman, R.A., Buhler, D.R. and Whanger, P.D. (1977) Metabolic interactions of selenium with heavy metals, in Biochemical Effects of Environmental Pollutants, (ed. S.D. Lee), Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, pp. 377–396.Google Scholar
  254. Roberts, J.D. and Caserio, M.C. (1965) Basic Principles of Organic Chemistry, W.A. Benjamin, New York, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
  255. Röderer, G. (1983) Differential toxic effects of mercuric chloride and methylmercuric chloride on the freshwater alga Poterioochromonas malhamensis. Aquat. Toxicol. 3, 23–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. Rodgers, D.W. (1994) You are what you eat and a little bit more: bioenergetics-based models of methylmercury accumulation in fish revisited, in Mercury Pollution, (eds C.J. Watras and J.W. Huckabee), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, pp. 427–439.Google Scholar
  257. Rodgers, D.W., Dickman, M. and Han, X. (1995) Stories from old reservoirs: sediment Hg and Hg methylation in Ontario hydroelectric developments. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 829–839.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. Rogers, R.D. (1977) Abiological Methylation of Mercury in Soil, Report no. EPA-600/3–77–007, Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory, Office of Research and Development, US Environmental Protection Agency, Las Vegas, Nevada.Google Scholar
  259. Rognerud, S. and Fjeld, E. (1993) Regional survey of heavy metals in lake sediments in Norway. Ambio 22, 206–212.Google Scholar
  260. Rowland, I.R., Davies, M.J. and Grasso, P. (1977) Volatilisation of methylmercuric chloride by hydrogen sulphide. Nature 265, 718–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. Rudd, J.W.M. (1995) Sources of methyl mercury to freshwater ecosystems: a review. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 697–713.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. Rudd, J.W.M. and Turner, M.A. (1983) The English-Wabigoon River system: V. Mercury and selenium bioaccumulation as a function of aquatic primary productivity. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40, 2251–2259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. Rudd, J.W.M., Turner, M.A., Townsend, B.E. et al. (1980) Dynamics of selenium in mercury-contaminated experimental freshwater ecosystems. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37, 848–857.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. Ruohtula, M. and Miettinen, J.K. (1975) Retention and excretion of 203Hg-labelled methylmercury in rainbow trout. Oikos 26, 385–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. Scheider, W.A., Jeffries, D.S. and Dillon, P.J. (1979) Effects of acidic precipitation on Precambrian freshwaters in southern Ontario. J. Great Lakes Res. 5, 45–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. Schindler, D.W. (1988) Effects of acid rain on freshwater ecosystems. Science 239, 149–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. Schindler, P.W. and Stumm, W. (1987) The surface chemistry of oxides, hydroxides, and oxide minerals, in Aquatic Surface Chemistry, (ed. W. Stumm.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, Toronto, Chichester, Brisbane, Singapore, pp. 83–110.Google Scholar
  268. Schnitzer, M. and Khan, S.U. (1972) Humic Substances in the Environment, Marcel Dekker, New York.Google Scholar
  269. Schottel, J., Mandai, A. and Toth, K. (1974) Mercury and mercurial resistance determined by plasmids in Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, in Proc. Int. Conf. on Transport of Persistent Chemicals in Aquatic Ecosystems (Ottawa, Canada, 1–3 May, 1974), Sect. II, pp. 65–71.Google Scholar
  270. Schroeder, W.H., Yarwood, G. and Niki, H. (1991) Transformation processes involving mercury species in the atmosphere — results from a literature survey. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 653–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. Schuster, E. (1991) The behavior of mercury in the soil with special emphasis on complexation and adsorption processes — a review of the literature, Water, Air, Soil Pollut., 56, 667–680.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. Scott, D.P. (1974) Mercury concentration of white muscle in relation to age, growth, and condition in four species of fishes from Clay Lake, Ontario. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 31, 1723–1729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. Scott, D.P. and Armstrong, F.A.J. (1972) Mercury concentration in relation to size in several species of freshwater fishes from Manitoba and Northwestern Ontario. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29, 1685–1690.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. Scruton, D.A., Petticrew, E.L., LeDrew, L.J. et al. (1994) Methylmercury levels in fish tissue from three reservoir systems in insular Newfoundland, Canada, in Mercury Pollution, (eds C.J. Watras and J.W. Huckabee), Lewis Publisheers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, pp. 441–455.Google Scholar
  275. Sellers, P., Kelly, CA., Rudd, J.W.M. and MacHutchon, A.R. (1996) Photodegradation of methylmercury in lakes. Nature 380, 694–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. Semu, E., Singh, B.R. and Selmer-Olsen, A.R. (1987) Adsorption of mercury compounds by tropical soils. II. Effect of soil:solution ratio, ionic strength, pH, and organic matter. Water Air Soil Polin 32, 1–10.Google Scholar
  277. Shariat, M., Anderson, A.C. and Mason, J.W. (1979) Screening of common bacteria capable of demethylation of methylmercuric chloride. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol 21,255–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. Shin, E.-B. and Krenkel, P.A. (1976) Mercury uptake by fish and biomethylation mechanisms. J. Water Polin Control Fed. 48, 473–501.Google Scholar
  279. Siegel, B.Z. and Siegel, S.M. (1979) Biological indicators of atmospheric mercury, in The Bio geochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, pp. 131–159.Google Scholar
  280. Sillén, L.G. and Martell, A.E. (1964) Stability Constants of Metal-ion Complexes, Special Publication no. 17, The Chemical Society, London.Google Scholar
  281. Sillén, L.G. and Martell, A.E. (1971) Stability Constants of Metal-ion Complexes, Supplement no. 1, Special Publication no. 25, The Chemical Society, London.Google Scholar
  282. Simonin, H.A., Gloss, S.P., Driscoll, C.T. et al. (1994) Mercury in yellow perch from Adirondack drainage lakes (New York, US), in Mercury Pollution, (eds C.J. Watras and J.W. Huckabee), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, pp. 457–469.Google Scholar
  283. Sinicrope, T.L., Langis, R., Gersberg, R.M. et al. (1992) Metal removal by wetland mesocosms subjected to different hydroperiods. Ecol Eng. 1, 309–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  284. Sisler, H. (1963) Electronic Structure, Properties, and the Periodic Law, Reinhold, New York; Chapman & Hall, London.Google Scholar
  285. Slotton, D.G., Reuter, J.E. and Goldman, C.R. (1995) Mercury uptake patterns of biota in a seasonally anoxic northern California reservoir. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 841–850.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  286. Southworth, G.R., Turner, R.R., Peterson, M.J. and Bogle, M.A. (1995) Form of mercury in stream fish exposed to high concentrations of dissolved inorganic mercury. Chemosphere 30, 719–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  287. Spangler, W.J., Spigarelli, J.L., Rose, J.M. and Miller, H.M. (1973) Methylmercury: bacterial degradation in lake sediments. Science 180, 192–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  288. St Louis, V.L., Rudd, J.W.M., Kelly, C.A. et al. (1994) Importance of wetlands as sources of methyl mercury to Boreal forest ecosystems. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 51, 1065–1076.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. Steffan, R.J., Korthals, E.T. and Winfrey, M.R. (1988) Effects of acidification on mercury methylation, demethylation, and volatilization in sediments from an acid-susceptible lake. AppL Environ. Microbiol. 54, 2003–2009.Google Scholar
  290. Steinnes, E. (1994) Is mercury affected by the ‘global fractionation’ process? In Abstract Book of International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant (Whistler, British Columbia, July, 1994) (abstract).Google Scholar
  291. Steinnes, E. and Andersson, E.M. (1991) Atmospheric deposition of mercury in Norway: temporal and spatial trends. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 391–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  292. Stordal, M.C, Gill, G.A., Wen, L.-S. and Santschi, P.H. (1996) Mercury phase spe-ciation in the surface waters of three Texas estuaries: importance of colloidal forms. Limnol. Oceanogr. 41, 52–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. Stumm, W., Hohl, H. and Dalang, F. (1976) Interaction of metal ions with hydrous oxide surfaces. Croatica Chemica Acta 48, 491–504.Google Scholar
  294. Summers, A.O. (1988) Biotransformations of mercury compounds, in Environmental Biotechnology, (ed. G.S. Omenn), Plenum Press, New York, London, pp. 105–109.Google Scholar
  295. Takizawa, Y. (1979) Epidemiology of mercury poisoning, in The Bio geochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, pp. 325–365.Google Scholar
  296. Timperley, M.H. and Allan, R.J. (1974) The formation and detection of metal dispersion halos in organic lake sediments. J. Geochem. Explor. 3, 167–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. Tipping, E. and Hurley, M.A. (1992) A unifying model of cation binding by humic substances. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 56, 3627–3641.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. Topping, G. and Davies, I.M. (1981) Methylmercury production in the marine water column. Nature 290, 243–244.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. Trost, P.B. and Bisque, R.E. (1972) Distribution of mercury in residual soils, in Environmental Mercury Contamination, (eds R. Hartung and B.D. Dinman), Ann Arbor Science Publishers, Ann Arbor, pp. 178–196.Google Scholar
  300. Turner, M.A. and Rudd, J.W.M. (1983) The English-Wabigoon River system: III. Selenium in lake enclosures: its geochemistry, bioaccumulation, and ability to reduce mercury bioaccumulation. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40, 2228–2240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  301. Turner, M.A. and Swick, A.L. (1983) The English-Wabigoon River system: IV. Interaction between mercury and selenium accumulated from waterborne and dietary sources by northern pike (Esox lucius). Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40, 2241–2250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. Verdon, R., Brouard, D., Demers, C. et al. (1991) Mercury evolution (1978–1988) in fishes of the La Grande hydroelectric complex, Québec, Canada. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 405–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. Vonk, J.W. and Sijpesteijn, A.K. (1973) Studies on the methylation of mercuric chloride by pure cultures of bacteria and fungi. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 39, 505–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. Wagemann, R., Lockhart, W.L., Welch, H. and Innés, S. (1995) Arctic marine mammals as integrators and indicators of mercury in the Arctic. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 683–693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  305. Walczak, B.Z., Hammer, U.T. and Huang, P.M. (1986) Ecophysiology and mercury accumulation of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) when exposed to mercury in various concentrations of chloride. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43, 710–714.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. Wang, J.S., Huang, P.M., Hammer, U.T. and Liaw, W.K. (1985) Influence of selected cation and anion species on the adsorption of mercury(II) by montmorillonite. Appl. Clay Sci. 1, 125–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. Wang, J.S., Huang, P.M., Hammer, U.T. and Liaw, W.K. (1988) Influence of chloride/mercury molar ratio and pH on the adsorption of mercury by poorly crystalline oxides of Al, Fe, Mn, and Si. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 23, 1594–1600.Google Scholar
  308. Wang, J.S., Huang, P.M., Hammer, U.T. and Liaw, W.K. (1989) Role of dissolved oxygen in the desorption of mercury from freshwater sediment, in Aquatic Toxicology and Water Quality Management, (ed. J.O. Nriagu.), John Wiley & Sons, New York, Toronto, Chichester, Brisbane, Singapore, pp. 153–159.Google Scholar
  309. Wang, J.S., Huang, P.M., Liaw, W.K. and Hammer, U.T. (1991) Kinetics of the desorption of mercury from selected freshwater sediments as influenced by chloride. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 533–542.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  310. Waslenchuk, D.G. (1975) Mercury in fluvial bed sediments subsequent to contamination. Environ. Geol. 1, 131–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. Watras, C.J. and Bloom, N.S. (1992) Mercury and methylmercury in individual zoo-plankton: implications for bioaccumulation. Limnol. Oceanogr. 37, 1313–1318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  312. Watras, C.J., Bloom, N.S., Hudson, R.J.M. et al. (1994) Sources and fates of mercury and methylmercury in Wisconsin lakes, in Mercury Pollution, (eds C.J Watras and J.W. Huckabee), Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, Tokyo, pp. 153–177.Google Scholar
  313. Watras, C.J., Bloom, N.S., Claas, S.A. et al. (1995) Methylmercury production in the anoxic hypolimnion of a dimictic seepage lake. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 735–745.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. Watras, C.J., Morrison, K.A. and Bloom, N.S. (1995) Chemical correlates of Hg and methyl-Hg in northern Wisconsin lake waters under ice-cover. Water Air Soil Polin 84, 253–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. Weber, J.H. (1993) Review of possible paths for abiotic methylation of mercury(II) in the aquatic environment. Chemosphere 26, 2063–2077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  316. Weber, J.H., Reisinger, K. and Stoeppler, M. (1985) Methylation of mercury(II) by fulvic acid. Environ. TechnoL Letts 6, 203–208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  317. Westöö, G. (1973) Methylmercury as percentage of total mercury in flesh and viscera of salmon and sea trout of various ages. Science 181, 567–568.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  318. van der Weijden, C.H. (1990) Behaviour of heavy metals upon transition from riverine to marine environment, in Program and Abstracts, V.M. Goldschmidt Conference (2–4 May, 1990, Baltimore, Maryland), pp. 88 (abstract).Google Scholar
  319. Wiener, J.G., Fitzgerald, W.F., Watras, CJ. and Rada, R.G. (1990) Partitioning and bioavailability of mercury in an experimentally acidified Wisconsin lake. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 909–918.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. Wilken, R.-D. and Hintelmann, H. (1991) Mercury and methylmercury in sediments and suspended particles from the River Elbe, North Germany. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 427–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. Williams, D.R. (1971) The Metals of Life, Van Nostrand Reinhold, London, New York, Cincinnati, Toronto, Melbourne.Google Scholar
  322. Windom, H.L. and Kendall, D.R. (1979) Accumulation and biotransformation of mercury in coastal and marine biota, in The Bio geochemistry of Mercury in the Environment, (ed. J.O. Nriagu), Elsevier/North-Holland Biomedical Press, Amsterdam, Oxford, New York, pp. 303–323.Google Scholar
  323. Winfrey, M.R. and Rudd, J.W.M. (1990) Environmental factors affecting the formation of methylmercury in low pH lakes. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 9, 853–869.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  324. Wobeser, G. (1974) Toxicity of methyl mercury for fish and mink, in Proceedings International Conference on Transport of Persistent Chemicals in Aquatic Ecosystems (1–3 May, 1974, Ottawa, Canada), Sect. III, p. 71 (abstract).Google Scholar
  325. Wobeser, G. (1975) Acute toxicity of methyl mercury chloride and mercuric chloride for rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) fry and fingerlings. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32, 2005–2013.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. Wood, J.M. (1971) Environmental pollution by mercury, in Advances in Environmental Science and Technology, Vol. 2 (eds J.N. Pitts Jr and R.L. Metcalf), Wiley-Interscience (John Wiley & Sons), New York, Toronto, London, Sydney, pp. 39–56.Google Scholar
  327. Wood, J.M. (1980) The role of pH and oxidation-reduction potentials in the mobilization of heavy metals, in Polluted Rain, (eds T.Y Toribara, M.W. Miller and P.E. Morrow), Plenum Press, New York, London, pp. 223–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. Wood, J.M., Kennedy, F.S. and Rosen, CG. (1968) Synthesis of methyl mercury compounds by extracts of a methanogenic bacterium. Nature 220, 173–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  329. Wren, CD. and MacCrimmon, H.R. (1983) Mercury levels in the sunfish, Lepomis gibbosus, relative to pH and other environmental variables of Precambrian shield lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40, 1737–1744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  330. Wren, CD., Scheider, W.A., Wales, D.L. et al. (1991) Relation between mercury concentrations in walleye (Stizostedion vitreum) and northern pike (Esox lucius) in Ontario lakes and influence of environmental factors. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 48, 132–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. Wright, D.A., Welbourn, P.M. and Martin, A.V.M. (1991) Inorganic and organic mercury uptake and loss by the crayfish Orconectes propinquus. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 697–707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. Wright, D.R. and Hamilton, R.D. (1982) Release of methyl mercury from sediments: effects of mercury concentration, low temperature, and nutrient addition. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39 1459 – 1466.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. Xiao, Z.F., Strömberg, D. and Lindqvist, O. (1995) Influence of humic substances on photolysis of divalent mercury in aqueous solution. Water Air Soil Polin 80, 789–798.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. Xu, H. and Allard, B. (1991) Effects of a fulvic acid on the speciation and mobility of mercury in aqueous solutions. Water Air Soil Polin 56, 709–717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  335. Xun, L., Campbell, N.E.R. and Rudd, J.W.M. (1987) Measurements of specific rates of net methyl mercury production in the water column and surface sediments of acidified and circumneutral lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44, 750–757.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. Zepp, R.G. (1988) Environmental photoprocesses involving natural organic matter, in Humic Substances and their Role in the Environment, (eds F.H. Frimmel and R.F. Christman), Wiley- Interscience (John Wiley & Sons), Chichester, New York, Toronto, Brisbane, Singapore, pp. 193–214.Google Scholar
  337. Zepp, R.G., Baughman, G.L., Wolfe, N.L. and Cline, D.M. (1974) Methylmercuric complexes in aquatic systems. Environ. Letts 6, 117–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. Zhang, L. and Planas, D. (1994) Biotic and abiotic mercury methylation and demethy-lation in sediments. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 52, 691–698.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. Zvonarev, B.A. and Zyrin, N.G. (1982) Patterns of mercury sorption in soils. I. Effect of pH on mercury sorption by soils. Vestn. Mosk. Univ. Ser. 17: Pochvoved. 4, 43–48 (in Russian).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Togwell A. Jackson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations