Three Applications of MDS

  • Ingwer Borg
  • Patrick Groenen
Part of the Springer Series in Statistics book series (SSS)


Three applications of MDS are discussed in some depth. Emphasis is given to the questions of how to choose a particular MDS solution and how to interpret it. First, data on the perceived similarity of colors are studied. The predicted MDS configuration is a color circle, which is indeed found to be the best representation for the data. Second, confusion data on Morse codes are investigated. The MDS space shows two regional patterns, which reflect two physical properties of the signals. Third, global similarity judgments on different facial expressions are studied. A dimensional system can be found which relates to three empirical scales for the faces.


Facial Expression Color Data External Scale Morse Code Confusion Data 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingwer Borg
    • 1
  • Patrick Groenen
    • 2
  1. 1.Zentrum für Umfragen, Methoden und AnalysenMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Department of Data TheoryLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

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