Constructing MDS Representations

  • Ingwer Borg
  • Patrick Groenen
Part of the Springer Series in Statistics book series (SSS)


An MDS representation is found by using an appropriate computer program. The program, of course, proceeds by computation. But one- or two- dimensional MDS representations can also be constructed by hand, using nothing but a ruler and compass. In the following, we will discuss such constructions in some detail for both ratio MDS and for ordinal MDS. This leads to a better understanding of the geometry of MDS. In this context, it is also important to see that MDS is almost always done in a particular family of geometries, i.e., in flat geometries.


Solution Space Euclidean Geometry Rigid Motion Ranking Number Curve Geometry 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingwer Borg
    • 1
  • Patrick Groenen
    • 2
  1. 1.Zentrum für Umfragen, Methoden und AnalysenMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Department of Data TheoryLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

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