Confirmatory MDS

  • Ingwer Borg
  • Patrick Groenen
Part of the Springer Series in Statistics book series (SSS)


If more is known about the proximities or the objects, then additional restrictions (or constraints) can be imposed on the MDS model. This usually means that the MDS solutions must satisfy certain additional properties of the points’ coordinates or the distances. These properties are derived from substantive considerations. The advantage of enforcing such additional properties onto the MDS model is that one thus gets direct feedback about the validity of one’s theory about the data. If the Stress of a confirmatory MDS solution is not much higher than the Stress of a standard (“unconstrained”) MDS solution, the former is accepted as an adequate model. Several procedures that allow one to impose such external constraints are described and illustrated.


External Variable External Constraint Side Constraint External Scale Optimal Transformation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ingwer Borg
    • 1
  • Patrick Groenen
    • 2
  1. 1.Zentrum für Umfragen, Methoden und AnalysenMannheimGermany
  2. 2.Department of Data TheoryLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

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