Skip to main content

Coping with Stress

The Roles of Regulation and Development

  • Chapter
Handbook of Children’s Coping

Abstract

Our goals for this chapter are threefold. Our first goal is to consider coping within the larger framework of regulation, thereby broadening our perspective to include work on aspects of regulation that are relevant to an understanding of coping but frequently have not been considered by coping theorists. A second related goal is to present a preliminary heuristic model in which the roles of various modes of regulation in the coping process are considered. Finally, we use our heuristic model as a framework for briefly reviewing the developmental literature concerning factors related to coping and regulation.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 129.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Softcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Compact, lightweight edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info
Hardcover Book
USD 169.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  • Altshuler, J. L., & Ruble, D. N. (1989). Developmental changes in children’s awareness of strategies for coping with uncontrollable stress. Child Development, 60, 1337–1349.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Altshuler, J. L., Genevro, J. L., Ruble, D. N., & Bornstein, M. H. (1995). Children’s knowledge and use of coping strategies during hospitalization for elective surgery. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 16, 53–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arend, R., Gove, F. L., & Sroufe, L. A. (1979). Continuity of individual adaptation from infancy to kindergarten: A predictive study of ego-resiliency and curiosity in preschoolers. Child Development, 50, 950–959.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Asher, S. R. (1990). Recent advances in the study of peer rejection. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 3–16). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Band, E. B., & Weisz, J. R. (1988). How to feel better when it feels bad: Children’s perspectives on coping with everyday stress. Developmental Psychology, 24, 247–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Baumrind, D. (1989). The permanence of change and the impermanence of stability. Human Development, 32, 187–195.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Benenson, J. F., & Dweck, C. S. (1986). The development of trait explanations and self evaluations in the academic and social domains. Child Development, 57, 1179–1187.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bernzweig, J., Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1993). Children’s coping in self- and other-relevant contexts. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 55, 208–226.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Block, J. H. (1987, April). Longitudinal antecedents of ego-control and ego-resiliency in adolescence. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, Baltimore.

    Google Scholar 

  • Block, J. H., & Block, J. (1980). The role of ego-control and ego-resiliency in the organization of behavior. In W. Andrew Collins (Ed.), Development of cognition, affect, and social relations. The Minnesota Symposia on Child Psychology (Vol. 13, pp. 39–101). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Block, J., Gjerde, P. F., & Block, J. H. (1991). Personality antecedents of depressive tendencies in 18year-olds: A prospective study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 726–738.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blos, P. (1979). The adolescent passage. New York: International Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blount, R. L., Landolf-Fritsche, B., Powers, S. W., & Sturges, J. W. (1991). Differences between high and low coping children and between parent and staff behaviors during painful medical procedures. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 16, 795–809.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Attachment (Vol. 1). New York: Basic Books.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bridges, L. J., & Grolnick, W. S. (1995). The development of emotional self-regulation in infancy and early childhood. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Review of personality and psychology (pp. 185–211).

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks-Gunn, J. (1989). Adolescents as children and as parents: A developmental perspective. In I. E. Sigel & G. H. Brody (Eds.), Methods of family research: Biographies of research projects, Vol. I: Normal families (pp. 213–248). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brooks-Gunn, J. (1992). Growing up female: Stressful events and the transition to adolescence. In T. M. Field, P. M. McCabe, & N. Schneiderman (Eds.), Stress and coping in infancy and childhood (pp. 119–148). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Brown, J. M., O’Keefe, J., Sanders, S. H., & Baker, B. (1986). Developmental changes in children’s cognition to stressful and painful situations. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 11, 343–357.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bryant, B. K. (1987). Mental health, temperament, family, and friends: Perspectives on children’s empathy and social perspective taking. In N. Eisenberg & J. Strayer (Eds.), Empathy and its development (pp. 245–270). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryant, B. K., & Litman, C. (1987). Siblings as teachers and therapists. Journal of Children in Contemporary Society, 19, 185–205.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bugental, D. B., Cortez, V., & Blue, J. (1992). Children’s affective responses to the expressive cues of others. In N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes (Eds.), New directions in child development (pp. 75–89). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Carson, D. K., & Bittner, M. T. (1994). Temperament and school-aged children’s coping abilities and responses to stress. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155, 289–302.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Weintraub, J. K. (1989). Assessing coping strategies: A theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56, 267–283.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Caspi, A. (in press). Personality development. In W. Damon (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. 3, N. Eisenberg, ed., Social and personality development). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cauce, A. M., Felner, R. D., & Primavera, J. (1982). Social support in high-risk adolescents: Structural components and adaptive impact. American Journal of Community Psychology, 10, 417–428.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Coie, J. D., Dodge, K. A., & Kupersmidt, J. B. (1990). Peer group behavior and social status. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 17–59). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Compas, B. E. (1987). Coping with stress during childhood and adolescence. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 393–403.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Compas, B. E., Banez, G. A., Malcarne, V., & Worsham, N. (1991). Perceived control and coping with stress: A developmental perspective. Journal of Social Issues, 47, 23–34.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Compas, B. E., Malcarne, V. L., & Banez, G. A. (1992). Coping with psychological stress: A developmental perspective. In B. N. Carpenter (Ed.), Personal coping: Theory, research, and application (pp. 47–64). Westport, CT: Praeger.

    Google Scholar 

  • Compas, B. E., Malcarne, V. L., Fondacaro, K. M. (1988). Coping with stressful events in older children and young adolescents. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 405–411.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Compas, B. E., & Phares, V. (1991). Stress during childhood and adolescence: Sources of risk and vulnerability. In E. M. Cummings, A. L. Greene, & K. H. Karraker (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Perspectives on stress and coping (pp. 111–130). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Connell, J. P., & Thompson, R. A. (1986). Emotion and social interaction in the Strange Situation: Consistencies and asymmetric influences in the second year. Child Development, 57, 733–745.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cortez, V. L., & Bugental, D. B. (1994). Children’s visual avoidance of threat: A strategy associated with low social control. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 82–97.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cummings, E. M., & Cummings, J. L. (1988). A process-oriented approach to children’s coping with adults’ angry behavior. Developmental Review, 8, 296–321.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Davis, M., & Emory, E. (1995). Sex differences in neonatal stress reactivity. Child Development, 66, 14–27.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Derryberry, D., & Rothbart, M. K. (1988). Arousal, affect, and attention as components of temperament. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55, 958–966.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dodge, K. A. (1991). Emotion and social information processing. In J. Garber & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion: Regulation and dysregulation (pp. 159–181). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Dodge, K. A., & Coie, J. D. (1987). Social-information-processing factors in reactive and proactive aggression in children’s peer groups. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53, 1146–1158.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dodge, K. A., Murphy, R. R., & Buchsbaum, K. (1984). The assessment of intention-cue detection skills in children: Implications for development of psychopathology. Child Development, 55, 163–173.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Dusek, J. B., & Danko, M. (1994). Adolescent coping styles and perceptions of parental child rearing. Journal of Adolescent Research, 9, 412–426.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. A. (1992). Emotion, regulation, the development of social competence. In M. S. Clark (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology: Vol. 14. Emotion and social behavior (pp. 119–150). Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Bernzweig, J., Karbon, M., Poulin, R., & Hanish, L. (1993). The relations of emotionality and regulation to preschoolers’ social skills and sociometric status. Child Development, 64, 1418–1438.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Carlo, G., & Karbon, M. (1992). Emotional responsivity to others: Behavioral correlates and socialization antecedents. N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes (Eds.), New Directions in Child Development, 55, 57–73.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., Murphy, B. C., Maszk, P., Holmgren, R., & Suh, K. (1995). The relations of regulation and emotionality to problem behavior in elementary school children. Development and Psychopathology, 8, 141–162.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Minore, D., Mathy, R., Hanish, L., & Brown, T. (1994). Children’s enacted interpersonal strategies: Their relations to social behavior and negative emotionality. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 212–232.

    Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Murphy, M., Maszk, P., Smith, M., & Karbon, M. (1995). The role of emotionality and regulation in children’s social functioning: A longitudinal study. Child Development, 66, 1239–1261.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Nyman, M., Bernzweig, J., & Pinuelas, A. (1994). The relations of emotionality and regulation to young children’s anger-related reactions. Child Development, 65, 109–128.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fabes, R. A., & Eisenberg, N. (1992). Young children’s coping with interpersonal anger. Child Development, 63, 116–128.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fabes, R. A., & Eisenberg, N. (in press). Regulatory control and adults’ stress and coping responses to daily life events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fabes, R. A., Eisenberg, N., & Eisenbud, L. (1993). Physiological and behavior correlates of Children’s reactions to others in distress. Developmental Psychology, 29, 655–663.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Fabes, R. A., Eisenberg, N., Nyman, M., & Michelieu, Q. (1991). Children appraisals of others’ spontaneous emotional reactions. Developmental Psychology, 27, 858–866.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Feiring, C., & Lewis, M. (1991). The development of social networks from early to middle childhood: Gender differences and the relation to school competence. Sex Roles, 25, 237–253.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Folkman, S. (1991). Coping across the life span: Theoretical issues. In E. M. Cummings, A. L. Greene, & K. H. Karraker (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Perspectives on stress and coping (pp. 3–18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. A. (1988). Coping as a mediator of emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54, 466–475.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Folkman, S., Lazarus, R. S., Dunkel-Schetter, C., DeLongis, N., & Gruen, R. (1986). Dynamics of a stressful encounter: Cognitive appraisal, coping, and encounter outcomes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 992–1003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Fox, N. A. (1989). Psychophysiological correlates of emotional reactivity during the first year of life. Developmental Psychology, 25, 364–372.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Garmezy, N. (1983). Stressors of childhood. In N. Garmezy & M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, coping and development in children (pp. 43–84). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Garmezy, N. (1985). Stress-resistant children. The search for protective factors. In J. E. Stevenson (Ed.), Recent research in developmental psychopathology (pp. 213–233). Oxford: Pergamon.

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibson, E. J. (1994). Has psychology a future? Psychological Science, 5, 69–76.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Graham, S., Hudley, C., & Williams, E. (1992). Attributional and emotional determinants of aggression among African-American and Latino young adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 28, 731–740.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greene, A. L., & Larson, R. W. (1991). Variation in stress reactivity during adolescence. In E. M. Cummings, A. L. Greene, & K. H. Karraker (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Perspectives on stress and coping (pp. 151–176). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Grolnick, W. S., & Ryan, R. M. (1989). Parent styles associated with children’s self-regulation and competence in school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 143–154.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gunnar, M. R., & Brodersen, L. (1992). Infant stress reactions to brief maternal separations in human and nonhuman primates. In T. M. Field, P. M. McCabe, & N. Schneiderman (Eds.), Stress and coping in infancy and childhood (pp. 1–18). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Haan, N. (1977). Coping and defending. New York: Academic.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hardy, D. F., Power, T. G., & Jaedicke, S. (1993). Examining the relation of parenting to children’s coping with everyday stress. Child Development, 64, 1829–1841.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Harris, P. (1989). Children and emotion. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harris, P. L., & Lipian, M. (1989). Understanding emotion and experiencing emotion. In C. Saarni & P. L. Harris (Eds.), Children’s understanding of emotion (pp. 241–258). New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harter, S. (1983). Developmental perspectives on the self-system. In P. H. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology: Vol. IV. Socialization, personality, and social development (ed. E. M. Hetherington) (pp. 275–385). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hay, D. F., & Ross, H. S. (1982). The social nature of early conflict. Child Development, 53, 105–113.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Herman, M. A., & McHale, S. M. (1993). Coping with parental negativity: Links with parental warmth and child adjustment. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 14, 131–136.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Higgins, E. T., & Parsons, J. E. (1983). Social cognition and the social life of the child: Stages as subcultures. In E. T. Higgins, D. N. Ruble, & W. W. Hartup (Eds.), Social cognition and social development (pp. 15–62). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Hoffman, M. A., & Levy-Shiff, R. (1994). Coping and locus of control: A cross-generational transmission between mothers and adolescents. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 391–405.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Holahan, C. J., & Moos, R. H. (1987). Personal and contextual determinants of coping strategies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 946–955.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kagan, J. (1989). The concept of behavioral inhibition to the unfamiliar. In J. S. Reznick (Ed.), Perspectives on behavioral inhibition (pp. 1–23). Chicago: Chicago University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kagan, J., Reznick, J. S., & Snidman, N. (1986). Temperamental inhibition in early childhood. In R. Plomin & J. Dunn (Eds.), The study of temperament: Changes, continuities, and challenges (pp. 53–65). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Karoly, P. (1993). Mechanisms of self-regulation: A systems view. Annual Review of Psychology, 44, 23–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Karraker, K. H., & Lake, M. (1991). Normative stress and coping processes in infancy. In E. M. Cummings, A. L. Greene, & K. H. Karraker (Eds.), Life-span developmental psychology: Perspectives on stress and coping (pp. 85–110). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kendall, P. C., & Wilcox, L. E. (1979). Self-control in children: The development of a rating scale. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 47, 1020–1030.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kliewer, W. (1991). Coping in middle childhood: Relations to competence, type A behavior, monitoring, blunting, and locus of control. Developmental Psychology, 27, 689–697.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kliewer, W., Sandler, I., & Wolchik, S. (1994). Family socialization of threat appraisal and coping: Coaching, modeling and family context. In F. Nestmann & K. Hurrelmann (Eds.), Social networks and social support in childhood and adolescence (pp. 271–293). New York: Walter de Gruyter.

    Google Scholar 

  • Klingman, A., Melamed, B. G., Cuthbert, M. I., & Hermecz, D. A. (1984). Effects of participant modeling on information acquisition and skill utilization. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 52, 414–422.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Kopp, C. B. (1982). Antecedents of self-regulation: A developmental perspective. Developmental Psychology, 18, 199–214.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kopp, C. B. (1989). Regulation of distress and negative emotions: A developmental view. Developmental Psychology, 25, 343–354.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kopp, C. (1992). Emotional distress and control in young children. In N. Eisenberg & R. A. Fabes (Eds.), Emotion and its regulation in early development. NewDirections in Child Development, 55, 41–56.

    Google Scholar 

  • Krohne, H. W. (1988). Coping research: Current theoretical and methodological developments. The German Journal of Psychology, 12, 10–30.

    Google Scholar 

  • Kupersmidt, J. T., Coie, J. D., & Dodge, K. A. (1990). The role of poor peer relations in the development of disorder. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 274–308). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lazarus, R. S. (1991). Emotion and adaptation. New York: Oxford University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Coping and adaptation. In W. D. Gentry (Ed.), The handbook of behavioral medicine (pp. 282–325). New York: Guilford.

    Google Scholar 

  • Lerner, R. M., & East, P. L. (1984). The role of temperament in stress, coping, and socioemotional functioning in early development. Infant Mental Health Journal, 5, 148–159.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Maccoby, E. E. (1983). Social-emotional development and response to stressors. In N. Garmezy and M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, coping, and development in children (pp. 217–234). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Masters, J. C. (1991). Strategies and mechanisms for the personal and social control of emotion. In J. Garber & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), The development of emotion: Regulation and dysregulation (pp. 182–207). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • McCrae, R. R. (1984). Situational determinants of coping responses: Loss, threat, and challenge. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 46, 919–928.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, P. M., Kliewer, W., Hepworth, J. T., & Sandler, I. N. (1994). Maternal socialization of children’s postdivorce coping: Development of a measurement model. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 15, 457–487.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Miller, S. M., & Green, M. L. (1985). Coping with stress and frustration: Origins, nature and development. In M. Lewis & C. Saarni (Eds.), The socialization of emotions (pp. 263–314). New York: Plenum Press.

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  • Minuchin, P. P., & Shapiro, E. K. (1983). The school as a context for social development. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. IV, pp. 197–274). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Mischel, H. N., & Mischel, W. (1983). The development of children’s knowledge of self-control strategies. Child Development, 54, 603–619.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mischel, W., Shoda, Y., & Rodriguez, M. L. (1989). Delay of gratification in children. Science, 244, 933–938.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Nelson-LeGall, S. A., & Gumerman, R. A. (1984). Children’s perceptions of helpers and helper motivation. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 5, 1–12.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newcomb, A. F., Bukowski, W. M., & Pattee, L. (1993). Children’s peer relations: A meta-analysis review of popular, rejected, neglected, controversial, and average sociometric status. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 99–128.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Offer, D. (1987). In defense of adolescence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 257, 3407–3408.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Parke, R. D., & Slaby, R. G. (1983). The development of aggression. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. IV, pp. 547–641). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Parker, J. G., & Asher, S. R. (1987). Peer relations and later personal adjustment: Are low-accepted children at risk? Psychological Bulletin, 102, 357–389.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Pierce, S. L., Tout, K., & de Haan, M. (1993, March). Individual differences in neuroendocrine activity in preschoolers: Relations with temperament characteristics. Paper presented at the biennial meeting of the Society for Research in Child Development, New Orleans, LA.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pulkkinen, L. (1986). The role of impulse control in the development of antisocial and prosocial behavior. In D. Olweus, J. Block, & M. Radke-Yarrow (Eds.), Development of antisocial and prosocial behavior: Research, theories, and issues (pp. 149–206). Orlando, FL: Academic Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pulkkinen, L. (1988). A two-dimensional model as a framework for interindividual differences in social behavior. In D. H. Saklofske & S. B. G. Eysenck (Eds.), Individual differences in children and adolescents (pp. 27–37). London: Hodder & Stoughton.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rende, R. D., & Plomin, R. (1992). Relations between first grade stress, temperament, and behavior problems. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 13, 435–446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts, W., & Strayer, J. (1987). Parents’ responses to the emotional distress of their children: Relations with children’s competence. Developmental Psychology, 23, 415–432.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rossman, B. B. R. (1992). School-age children’s perceptions of coping with distress: Strategies for emotion regulation and the moderation of adjustment. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 1373–1397.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rossman, B. B. R., & Rosenberg, M. S. (1992). Family stress and functioning in children: The moderating effects of children’s beliefs about their control over parental conflict. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 33, 699–715.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rotenberg, K. J., & Mann, L. (1986). The development of the norm of reciprocity of self-disclosure and its function in children’s attraction to peers. Child Development, 57, 1349–1357.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roth, S., & Cohen, L. J. (1986). Approach, avoidance, and coping with stress. American Psychologist, 41, 813–819.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rothbart, M. K., & Derryberry, D. (1981). Development of individual differences in temperament. In M. E. Lamb & A. L. Brown (Eds.), Advances in developmental psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 37–86). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rothbart, M. K., Ziaie, H., & O’Boyle, C. G. (1992). Self-regulation and emotion in infancy. In N. Eisenbergy & R. A. Fabes (Eds.), New directions in child development: The development of self-regulation and emotion (pp. 7–24). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rubin, K. H., LeMare, L. J., & Lollis, S. (1990). Social withdrawal in children: Developmental pathways to peer rejection. In S. R. Asher & J. D. Coie (Eds.), Peer rejection in childhood (pp. 217–249). Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ruble, D. N., & Dweck, C. (1995). Self-conceptions, person conceptions and their development. In N. Eisenberg (Ed.), Review of personality and social psychology, Vol. 15, (pp. 109–139). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Google Scholar 

  • Rutter, M. (1983). Stress, coping, and development: Some issues and some questions. In N. Garmezy and M. Rutter (Eds.), Stress, coping, and development in children (pp. 1–42). New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sackin, S., & Thelen, E. (1984). An ethological study of peaceful associative outcomes to conflict in preschool children. Child Development, 55, 1098–1102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., & West, S. G. (1994). Coping, stress and the psychological symptoms of children of divorce: A cross-sectional and longitudinal study. Child Development, 65, 1744–1763.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Schunk, D. H., & Hanson, A. R. (1989). Influence of peer-model attributes on children’s beliefs and learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 81, 431–434.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shantz, C. U. (1983). Social cognition. In P. Mussen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (Vol. III, pp. 495–555). New York: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  • Silverman, W. K., La Greca, A. M., & Wasserstein, S. (1995). What do children worry about? Worries and their relation to anxiety. Child Development, 66, 671–686.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Skinner, E. A., & Wellborn, J. G. (1994). Coping during childhood and adolescence: A motivational perspective. In R. Lerner, D. Featherman, & M. Perlmuter (Eds.), Life-span development and behavior (Vol. 12, pp. 91–123). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Sroufe, L. A. (1988). The role of infant-caregiver attachment in development. In J. Belsky & T. Nezworski (Eds.), Clinical implications of attachment (pp. 18–38). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Stipek, D. J., Recchia, S., & McClinic, S. (1992). Self-evaluation in young children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 57, Serial No. 226, 1–79.

    Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, R. A. (1990). Vulnerability in research: A developmental perspective on research risk. Child Development, 61, 1–16.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotional regulation: A theme in search of definition. Child Development Monographs, 59, 25–52.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tronick, E. Z. (1989). Emotions and emotional communication in infants. American Psychologist, 44, 112–119.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vaillant, G. E. (1977). Adaptation to life. Boston: Little, Brown.

    Google Scholar 

  • Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (1982). Vulnerable, but invincible: A study of resilient children. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yamamoto, K., Soliman, A., Parsons, J., & Davies, O. L. (1987). Voices in unison: Stressful events in the lives of children in six countries. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 28, 855–864.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Youniss, J. (1980). Parents and peers in social development: A Sullivan—Piaget perspective. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zahn-Waxler, C., Cole, P. M., Richardson, D., Friedman, R. J., Michel, M. K., & Belouad, F. (1994). Social problem solving in disruptive preschool children: Reactions to hypothetical situations of conflict and distress. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 40, 98–119.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 1997 Springer Science+Business Media New York

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R.A., Guthrie, I.K. (1997). Coping with Stress. In: Wolchik, S.A., Sandler, I.N. (eds) Handbook of Children’s Coping. Issues in Clinical Child Psychology. Springer, Boston, MA. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-2677-0_2

Download citation

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4757-2677-0_2

  • Publisher Name: Springer, Boston, MA

  • Print ISBN: 978-1-4419-3269-3

  • Online ISBN: 978-1-4757-2677-0

  • eBook Packages: Springer Book Archive

Publish with us

Policies and ethics