Developing Specialty Starches from New Crops
A wide range of variation was found in the properties tested among Amaranthus species and among genotypes within the same species. It was generally found that the amylose content of cultivated genotypes of Amaranthus was lower than that of non-cultivated genotypes; starch of cultivated genotypes had more stable pasting properties (i. e. higher peak viscosity, lower viscosity drop during shear thinning and lower retrogradation) than noncultivated genotypes; starch of cultivated genotypes had lower TP and higher ΔH than non-cultivated genotypes; the starch pastes of cultivated genotypes were stable during cold storage, i. e. hardness, cohesiveness and modulus of cultivated starch pastes were lower, and adhesiveness was higher, compared to non-cultivated genotypes. The values for pasting, functional, and thermal properties of Amaranthus starch were highly correlated, especially the pasting and functional properties. Amylose content was closely related to the physical and functional properties of Amaranthus starch. The environmental effect on the properties of Amaranthus starch was different for different species. Compared to the reference corn, rice, potato and wheat starches, Amaranthus starch tended to have more stable paste, i. e. lower shear thinning and lower retrogradation, and higher Tp and ΔH; Amaranthus starch paste was more resistant to cold storage. Generally, many Amaranthus starches would be good thickeners and stabilizers in food processing. The wide genetic diversity necessitates specific choices for specific uses.
KeywordsAmylose Content Potato Starch Rice Starch Wheat Starch Gelatinization Temperature
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