Regulation of Gene Expression in Adipose Cells by Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids
In fat cells polyunsaturated fatty acids are both substrates for, and products of, triacylglycerol metabolism. Dietary fatty acids are efficiently incorporated into the triacylglycerol droplet under lipogenic conditions while rapidly mobilizing them during lipolytic stimulation. Hence, the flux and magnitude of the fatty acid pool in adipocytes is constantly changing in response to hormonal, metabolic and genetic determinants. Due to the rapidly changing flux of fatty acids, the majority of genes encoding enzymes and proteins of lipid metabolism are largely refractory to long-term regulatory control by fatty acids. Only at extremes of high or low lipid levels, or under pathophysiological conditions, do adipose genes respond by up- or down-regulating gene expression. Despite the lack of responsiveness to lipids in adipose tissue, a surprisingly large number of genes have been characterized recently as lipid responsive when assayed in heterologous systems. These observations suggest an endogenous negative element exists in the lipid signaling pathway in adipocytes.
KeywordsPolyunsaturated Fatty Acid Adipose Cell Nonesterified Fatty Acid Lipid Binding Protein Fatty Acid Pool
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