Applications of Emulsifers in Baked Foods

  • Frank T. Orthoefer


The development of emulsifiers or surfactants for bakery products has followed the development of shortenings. The term “shortening” was initially used to refer to the fats used to “shorten” or tenderize baked foods. The composition of shortening has progressed from natural fats to blends of oils, hydrogenated fats, and hard fats. Shortenings may include additives such as emulsifiers, antioxidants, antifoams, and metal scavengers. In addition to their tenderizing function, the shortening affects structure, stability, flavor, storage quality, eating characteristics, and eye appeal of baked foods. Many of the functional effects are due to or enhanced by the emulsifier added via the shortening. This chapter will concentrate on the role of the emulsifier in baked foods.


Bakery Product Sucrose Ester Food Emulsifier Sorbitan Monostearate Cookie Dough 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Brandt, L. (1996). Emulsifiers in baked goods, Food Product Design, Feb., pp. 64–76.Google Scholar
  2. Chawla, P., deMan, J.M. (1990). J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 67, 329.Google Scholar
  3. Hahn, D.E., Hood, L.F. (1987). Factors influencing corn starch lipid complexing, Cer. Chem., 64, 81–85.Google Scholar
  4. Handleman, A.R., et al. (1961). Bubble mechanisms in thick foams and their effect on cake quality, Cer. Chem., 38, 294.Google Scholar
  5. Hartnett, D.I. (1977). J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 54, 557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Henry, C. (1995). Monoglycerides: the universal emulsifier, Cer. Foods World, 40 (10), 734–738.Google Scholar
  7. Knightly, W.H. (1988). Cer. Foods World, 33, 405–412.Google Scholar
  8. Krog, N. (1981). Theoretical aspects of surfactants in relation to their use in breadmaking, Cer. Chem., 58, 158–164.Google Scholar
  9. Lagendijk, J., Pennings, H.J. (1970), Cer. Sci. Today, 15, 354–356,365.Google Scholar
  10. O’Brien, R.D. (1996). Shortening: types and formulations, in Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products (ed. Y.H. Hui), 5th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 161–193, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  11. Rusch, D.T. (1981). Emulsifiers: uses in cereal and bakery foods, Cer. Foods World, 26 (3), 111–115.Google Scholar
  12. Schmidt, J.C., Orthoefer, F. (1985). Modified lecithins, in Lecithins (eds. B.F. Szuhaj and G.List), Chap.10, pp. 203–213, Am. Oil Chem. Soc., Champaign, IL.Google Scholar
  13. Schuster, G., Adams, W.F. (1984). Emulsifiers as additives in bread and fine baked products, in Advances in Cereal Science and Technology (ed. Y. Pomeranz), Chap. 4, pp. 139–242, Am. Assoc. Cer, Chem. Inc., St. Paul, MN.Google Scholar
  14. Stauffer, C.E. (1996). Emulsifiers for the food industry, in Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products, 5th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 483–516, Wiley, New York.Google Scholar
  15. Tenney, R.J. (1978). Dough conditioners/bread softeners, Baker’s Digest, 52 (4), 24.Google Scholar
  16. Tsen, C.C., et al. (1973). High protein cookies I. Effect of soy fortification and surfactants, Baker’s Digest, 47 (4); 34–39.Google Scholar
  17. Weiss, T.J. (1983). Food Oils and Their Uses, AVI, Westport, CT.Google Scholar
  18. Wooten, J.C., et al. (1967). The role of emulsifiers in the incorporation of air into layer cake batter systems, Cer. Chem., 44, 333.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank T. Orthoefer

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations