Compensation and Calibration of IC Microsensors

  • Andreas Häberli
  • Henry Baltes

Abstract

In the last 25 years the area of man-made transducers has been enriched by integrated microtransducers, i.e. miniaturized sensors and actuators, designed and fabricated using methods reminiscent of silicon integrated circuit (IC) technology. It is a foregone conclusion that signal conditioning, compensation, and calibration of such microtransducers should be attempted by silicon integrated circuits. Microsensor compensation and calibration methodology is revisited and a comprehensive list of eight basic compensation techniques is compiled.

Keywords

Meijer Hemel 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. [1]
    A. Häberli, Compensation and Calibration of IC Microsensors, Ph. D. thesis No. 12090, ETH Zurich, Switzerland, 1997.Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    G. C. Barney, Intelligent Instrumentation, Prentice-Hall, Hemel Hempstead, 1988.Google Scholar
  3. [3]
    J. E. Brignell and N. White, Intelligent Sensor Systems, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 1994.Google Scholar
  4. [4]
    Jones, B. E., Instrumentation, Measurement, and Feedback, McGraw-Hill, New York, 1977.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    G. Meijer and A. Herwaarden, Thermal Sensors, Institute of Physics Publishing, Bristol, 1994.Google Scholar
  6. [6]
    C. Enz, E. Vittoz, F. Krummenacher, “A CMOS chopper amplifier”, IEEE J. Solid-State Circuits, vol. 22, pp. 335–342, 1987.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    G. C. Temes and K. Haug, “Improved offset compensated schemes for switched-capacitor circuits”, Electron. Lett., vol. 20, pp. 508–509, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    P. Ripka, “Review of fluxgate sensors”, Sensors and Actuators A, vol. 33, pp. 129–141, 1992.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    R. J. Reay, E. H. Klaassen, and G. T. A. Kovacs, “A micromachined lowpower temperature-regulated bandgap voltage reference”, IEEE J. Solid State Circuits, vol. 30, pp. 1374–1381, 1995.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    J. Trontelj, L. Trontelj, R. Opara, A. Pletersek, “CMOS integrated magnetic field source used as a reference in magnetic field sensors on common substrate”, IEEE Instrumentation and Measurement Technology Conference (IMTC ‘94), Hamamatsu, Japan, pp. 461–463, 1994.Google Scholar
  11. [11]
    S. Middelhoek and S. A. Audet, Silicon Sensors, Academic Press, London, 1989.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    Y. Xing, S. Kordic, and S. Middelhoek, “Approach to offset reduction in sensors: the sensitivity-variation method,” J. Phys. E.: Sci. Instr. 17, pp. 657–663, 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    A. Bellekom and P. J. A. Munter, “Offset reduction in spinning-current Hall plates”, Sensors and Materials A, vol. 5, pp. 253–263, 1994.Google Scholar
  14. [14]
    C. Mead, Analog VLSI and Neural Systems, Addison-Wesley, New York, 1989.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    A. Birolini, Quality and Reliability of Technical Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994.MATHGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    W. H. Ko and C. D. Fung, “VLSI and intelligent transducers”, Sensors and Actuators A, vol. 2, pp. 239–250, 1982.Google Scholar
  17. [17]
    J. Lazzaro, S. Ryckebusch, M. A. Mahowald, and C. A. Mead, “Winnertake-all networks of O(n) complexity”, Advances in Neural Information Processing Systems, vol. 1, pp. 703–711, 1989.Google Scholar
  18. [18]
    R. Frank, Understanding Smart Sensors, Artech House, London, 1996.Google Scholar
  19. [19]
    J. W. Gardner, P. N. Barlett, Sensors and Sensory Systems for an Electronic Nose, NATO ASI Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1992.Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    P. Malcovati, A. Häberli, F. Mayer, O. Paul, F. Maloberti, and H. Baltes, “Combined air humidity and flow CMOS microsensor with on-chip 15 bit sigma-delta A/D interface”, VLSI Circuit Symposium’95 Digest of Technical Papers, Japan, pp. 45–46, 1995.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    H. P. Baltes, Inverse Source Problems in Optics, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1978.MATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Häberli
    • 1
  • Henry Baltes
    • 1
  1. 1.Physical Electronics LaboratoryETH ZurichSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations