Generation of Mouse Astroglia and Microglia Cultures from Mouse Neopallium

  • Sergey Fedoroff
  • Arleen Richardson


Newborn rats or mice are generally used as the source of tissue for glial cultures. Only about 1% of cells survive the cell disaggregation process and culture environment, and neurons that survive die within the first few days of culturing. Terminally differentiated cells, which can no longer divide, are overgrown by the proliferating, immature cells. As a result, the cells in culture are mainly immature cells and therefore cultures are very plastic. How the cultures will develop and which cell types, i.e., astroglia, Oligodendroglia, ependymal cells, or microglia, will enrich the culture, depends on the culture medium and the physical conditions under which the cells are grown. In addition to varying the components of a chemically defined medium or adding or removing serum from the medium, it is possible to add to the cultures growth factors and/or cytokines in pure recombinant form, or as soluble products in medium conditioned by cells, that produce and secrete the factors. (The latter is considerably cheaper). The addition of such factors to cultures can have dramatic effects. It should be noted that such factors may affect more than one cell type and may initiate different effects in different cells. The factors may interact with other factors synergistically, additively, or in an inhibitory way. Moreover, their half-life is short. This subject is extremely complex and beyond the scope of this book.


Conditioned Medium Cerebral Hemisphere Newborn Mouse Microglia Culture Roller Bottle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further Reading

  1. Abd-El-Basset, E. and Fedoroff, S. (1995), Effect of bacterial wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on morphology, motility and cytoskeletal organization of microglia in cultures. J. Neurosci. Res. 41, 222–237.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abd-El-Basset, E. and Fedoroff, S. (1994), Dynamics of actin filaments in microglia during Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Acta Neuropathol. 88, 527–537.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Branch, R. D. and Guilbert, L. J. (1986), Practical in vitro assay systems for the measurement of hematopoietic growth factors. J. Tissue Culture Methods 10, 101–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Das, S. K., Stanley, E. R., Guilbert, L. J. and Farman, L. W. (1980), Determination of a colony stimulating factor subclass by a specific receptor on a macrophage cell line. J. Cell Physiol. 104, 359–366.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frei, K., Siepl, C., Groscurth, P., Bodmer, S., and Fontana, A. (1988), Immunobiology of microglial cells. Adv. Neuroimmunol. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 540, 218–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fedoroff, S. (1995), Development of microglia, in Neuroglia, Kettenmann, H. and Ransom, B. R., eds., Oxford University Press, pp. 162–181.Google Scholar
  7. Fedoroff, S., Hao, C., Ahmed, J. and Guilbert, L. J. (1993), Paracrine and autocrine signalling in regulation of microglia survival, in Biology and Pathology of Astrocyte-Neuron Interactions, Fedoroff, S., Juurlink, B. H. J., and Doucette, R., eds., Plenum, New York, pp. 247–261.Google Scholar
  8. Gebicke-Haerter, P. J., Baker, J., Schobert, A. and Northoff, H. (1989), Lipopolysaccharide-free conditions in primary astrocyte cultures allow growth and isolation of microglial cells. J. Neurosci. Res. 9, 183–194.Google Scholar
  9. Gehrmann, J., Matsumoto, Y. and Kreutzberg, G. W. (1995), Microglia: intrinsic immune effector cell of the brain. Brain Res. Rev. 20, 269–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Giulian, D. and Bauer, T. J. (1986), Characterization of ameboid microglia isolated from developing mammalian brain. J. Neurosci. 6, 2163–2178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Hao, C., Richardson A., and Fedoroff, S. (1991), Macrophage-like cells originate from neuro-epithelium in culture: characterization and properties of the macrophage-like cells. Int. J. Devi. Neurosci. 9, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hao, C., Guilbert, L. J. and Fedoroff, S. (1990), Production of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) by mouse astroglia in vitro. J. Neurosci. Res. 27, 314–323.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Hayes, G. M., Woodroofe, M. N., and Cuzner, M. L. (1988), Characterization of microglia isolated from adult human and rat brain. J. Neuroimmunol. 19, 177–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Northoff, H., Gluck, D., Wolpl, A., Kubanek, B., and Galanos, C. (1986a), Lipopolysaccharide induced elaboration of interleukin-1 (IL-1) by human monocytes: Use for the detection of LPS in serum and influence of serum-LPS interactions. Rev. Infect. Dis. 9(Suppl. 5), 599–602.Google Scholar
  15. Northoff, H., Kabelits, D., and Galanos, C. (1986b), Interleukin 1 production for detection of bacterial polysaccharide in fetal calf sera and other solutions. Immunol. Today 7, 126,127.Google Scholar
  16. Perry, V. H. and Gordon, S. (1991), Macrophages and the nervous system. Int. Rev. Cytol. 125, 203–244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rieske, E., Graeber, M. B., Tetzlaff, W., Czlonkowska, A., Streit, W. J., and Kreutzberg, G. W. (1989), Microglia and microglia-derived brain macrophages in culture: generation from axotomized rat facial nuclei, identification and characterization in vitro. Brain Res. 429, 1–14.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Streit, W. J. (1995), Microglial cells, in Neuroglia. Kettenmann, H. and Ransom, B. R., eds., Oxford University Press, pp. 85–96.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sergey Fedoroff
  • Arleen Richardson

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations