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Pathophysiology of Water Metabolism During Critical Illness

  • Mary H. Parks
  • Joseph G. Verbalis
Part of the Contemporary Endocrinology book series (COE, volume 4)

Abstract

Maintenance of blood volume and pressure that is adequate for perfusion of vital body tissues and organs is crucial for the survival of organisms during periods of acute stress, such as critical illnesses. As might be expected of such important functions, many complex and overlapping physiological defense mechanisms have evolved to defend body fluid homeostasis during such periods. The efficacy of these mechanisms is attested to by the fact that derangements of body water and electrolytes do not occur even more frequently during disease states. Nonetheless, hypo- and hypernatremia represent the most common electrolyte disorders encountered in clinical practice today, and in order to understand both the pathogenesis and the appropriate therapy of these disorders in critically ill patients, it is crucial to understand body water metabolism and its disorders, since this accounts for the major part of regulation of the concentration in the extracellular fluid and blood. This chapter briefly summarizes the normal regulation of body water and then reviews in greater detail specific disorders associated with disruption of this normally finely tuned system for maintaining body fluids at physiologically appropriate volumes and solute concentrations.

Keywords

Acquire Immune Deficiency Syndrome Water Metabolism Free Water Clearance Glucocorticoid Deficiency Effective Arterial Blood Volume 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media New York 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary H. Parks
  • Joseph G. Verbalis

There are no affiliations available

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